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kiyanyn про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Да, никто не сделал большего для развития украинского самосознания и воспитания ненависти ко всему российскому даже в самых пророссийских регионах Украины, как ВВП в феврале...

Именно он - по делам, а не по словам - лучший друг бандеровцев :(

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pva2408 про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Конечно не существовало. Если конечно не читать украинских учебников))
«Украинский народ – самый древний народ в мире. Ему уже 140 тысяч лет»©
В них древние укры изобрели колесо, выкопали Черное море а , а землю использовали для создания Кавказских гор, били др. греков и римлян которые захватывали южноукраинские города, А еще Ной говорил на украинском языке, галлы родом из украинской же Галиции, украинцем был легендарный Спартак, а

подробнее ...

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Дед Марго про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Просто этот народ с 9 века, когда во главе их стали норманы-русы, назывался русским, а уже потом московиты, его неблагодарные потомки, присвоили себе это название, и в 17 веке появились малороссы украинцы))

Рейтинг: -6 ( 2 за, 8 против).
fangorner про Алый: Большой босс (Космическая фантастика)

полная хня!

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Stribog73 про Тарасов: Руководство по программированию на Форте (Руководства)

В книге ошибка. Слово UNLOOP спутано со словом LEAVE. Имейте в виду.

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Дед Марго про Дроздов: Революция (Альтернативная история)

Плохо. Ни уму, ни сердцу. Картонные персонажи и незамысловатый сюжет. Хороший писатель превратившийся в бюрократа от литературы. Если Военлета, Интенданта и Реваншиста хотелось серез время перечитывать, то этот опус еле домучил.

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Сентябринка про Орлов: Фантастика 2022-15. Компиляция. Книги 1-14 (Фэнтези: прочее)

Жаль, не успела прочитать.

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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Омский государственный технический университет»

Е. Ф. Старовойтова

ИЗУЧАЕМ ТЕХНОЛОГИЮ
ПОЛИГРАФИЧЕСКОГО ПРОИЗВОДСТВА
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ

Учебное пособие

Омск
Издательство ОмГТУ
2009
УДК 655: 802.0 (075)
ББК 37.8 + 81.2 Англ – 923
С 77

Рецензенты:

Н.Г. Гичева,
канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. каф. иностранных языков ОмГУ,
декан факультета иностранных языков ОмГУ;

Т.В. Ощепкова,
канд. филол. наук, доцент, зав. каф. английского языка факультета информатики ОмГПУ

Старовойтова Е.Ф.
С 77 Изучаем технологию полиграфического производства на английском языке: учеб. пособие / Е.Ф. Старовойтова. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГТУ, 2009. – 88 с.

ISBN 978-5-8149-0655-7

Учебное пособие содержит оригинальные тексты, соответствующие материалам, изучаемым студентами на лекциях и занятиях по профилирующим предметам. Каждый урок включает тексты для обучения разным видам чтения: А – изучающее чтение, В – просмотровое, С – поисковое, D – синтетическое. Цели пособия – научить студентов читать оригинальные технические тексты по полиграфии, а также помочь обучающимся овладеть навыками разговорной речи на английском языке по ключевым темам полиграфического производства. Оно включает лексический, терминологический, грамматический материал, типичный для научно-технических статей вышеуказанных специальностей.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов полиграфических специальностей.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета
Омского государственного технического университета.

УДК 655: 802.0 (075)
ББК 37.8 + 81.2 Англ – 923

© Омский государственный ISBN 978-5-8149-0655-7 технический университет, 2009

Lesson 1

Грамматика: 1. Герундий (Gerund).
2. Конверсия.

Основной текст A: History of Printing

Герундий

Active
Passive
Indefinite
asking
being asked
Perfect
having asked
having been asked

Признаки герундия и его перевод
Герундий по форме совпадает с причастием I или перфектным причастием. Его можно отличить от причастия по следующим признакам.
1. Глагольная форма с окончанием -ing является герундием, а не причастием, если перед ней стоит предлог, существительное в притяжательном падеже или притяжательное местоимение.
2. Герундий отличается от причастия по синтаксическим функциям. В отличие от причастия он может выполнять не только функцию определения и обстоятельства, но и функцию подлежащего и дополнения.
Герундий переводится (1) инфинитивом, (2) отглагольным существительным, (3) деепричастием или (4) личной формой глагола в функции сказуемого придаточного предложения, вводимого союзом что (чтобы) с предшествующим ему местоимением в соответствующем падеже (тем, о том и пр.).
Примеры:
1. Reading books is useful.
Чтение книг полезно. Читать книги полезно.
2. I like reading.
Я люблю читать. Я люблю чтение.
3. On coming home he always has a rest.
По приходу домой он всегда отдыхает. Придя домой, он всегда отдыхает.
4. The student was proud of having fulfilled this work in time.
Студент гордился тем, что он выполнил эту работу вовремя.
5. He was proud of his daughter's (her) having fulfilled her work so well.
Он гордился тем, что его дочь (она) так хорошо выполнила работу.
Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий.
1. Bad weather prevented them from finishing their work in time.
2. You can master the language by speaking English every day.
3. Instead of staying at home she went for a walk.
4. I remember having given you this book.
5. Stop smoking. It is so stuffy in the room.
6. My friend was very quick in learning this foreign language.
7. We know of his having gone to London.
8. He began determining the properties of the new material.
9. There are different ways of obtaining the substance.
10. After graduating from the Institute he worked at a plant.
11. The problem of obtaining power was solved.
12. At the meeting they discussed different ways of improving their work.
13. Seeing is believing.
14. The professor began making the experiment last year.
15. It is no use speaking to her.

Конверсия

Образование новых слов из существующих без изменения написания слов называется конверсией. Наиболее распространенным является образование глаголов от соответствующих существительных.
Например:
water – вода → to water – поливать,
control – контроль → to control – контролировать,
cause – причина → tо саuse – причинять, являться причиной.
Может иметь место и обратный процесс, т.е. образование существительных от глаголов. Например: fallout – радиоактивные осадки (от глагола to fall out – выпадать).
Глаголы могут быть образованы и от прилагательных. Например: empty – пустой → tо empty – опорожнять.

Упражнение 2. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся выделенные курсивом слова.
1. He works as a teacher.
2. Оne of Mendeleyev's important works is his book «Principles of Chemistry».
3. Your report was very interesting.
4. He reported the results of the experiment.
5. He devoted his life to the progress of his country.
6. If you do not work hard you'll make no progress.
7. He thought about his future work.
8. The book contained his thoughts about further development of national economy.
9. I have a present for you.
10. In 1859 he presented his thesis.
11. On my return home I called her up at once.
12. My father will return tomorrow.
13. His experiments resulted in a new discovery.
14. The telephone is the invention of the 20th century.
15. Sam didn't telephone me yesterday.

Vocabulary Notes

Задание. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. to shout = to cry – кричать
Our director never shouts at anybody even when he is nervous.
2. criеr – глашатай
Many centuries ago criers informed people about the events.
3. old-fashioned – старомодный
This dress is old-fashioned.
4. in order to – чтобы, для того чтобы
I went to the post-office in order to send a telegram.
5. kind – вид
There are many kinds of technical schools in our town.
6. to print – печатать
People learned to print many years ago.
7. by hand – вручную
At present few works are done by hand at our plants.
8. drawing – рисунок
Many ancient drawings were found by our archeologists.
9. to have at smb’s disposal – иметь в … распоряжении
We have many text-books at our disposal.
10. surface – поверхность
The surface of type was covered with ink.
11. to bear (bore, borne) – нести, носить
The type invented by John Fell bore his name.
12. to carve – рeзать, вырезать (по дереву или кости)
His hobby is carving.
13. block – деревянная печатная форма
The first blocks were carved by hand.
14. type – шрифт
Movable metallic type was invented by Gutenberg.
15. to compose – набирать
Type may be composed by hand or mechanically.
16. plate – пластина, форма
Stereotyped plates were very convenient for printing.
17. to coat – покрывать
Plates may be coated by nickel or chromium.
18. resin – смола
Resin is a sticky substance that flows out from plants and trees.
19. wax – воск
Wax is a soft yellow substance made by bees.
20. invention – изобретение
The invention of printing dates back to the 9th century.
21. to play a part – играть роль
His experiments play an important part in our work.
22. art – искусство
The art of printing is being constantly developed.
23. papermaking – изготовление бумаги
Papermaking is a very complex art.
24. to try – пытаться, стараться
He tried to prove his being right.
25. to try out – делать опыты, пробовать
He tried out many ways of creating a new material.
26. to spread (spread, spread) – распространять(ся)
The news spread about the town with great speed.
27. cheap – дешевый
Cheap kinds of paper are produced at this enterprise.
28. quality – качество
The quality of goods was very high.
29. to appear – появляться
Printing appeared in Russia in the 16th century.
30. appearance – внешний вид
The appearance of books has changed very little since the 18th century.
31. assistant – помощник
The professor and his assistant wanted to complete their experiments by May.
32. letter – буква
The line is composed of letters on some machines.
33. change – изменение
Great changes are performed in many branches of industry.
34. to change – меняться
He has changed very much in his manner but his appearance has remained the same.

Text 1A

Задание. Прочтите текст.
Many, many years ago a town crier ran through the streets and shouted out all the news. But now we live in the Atomic Age. Too many things happen too quickly for us to learn about them in the old-fashioned way. That is why we have to read more and more in order to find out what is happening in the world.
Have you ever thought about the kind of books people used long ago? It is only last 500 years that books have been printed on paper. Before that time the only way of making books was to write them by hand. No one knows when writing first began, but we have found drawings on the walls of caves and scratchings on bones which are at least 25,000 years old.
By the end of the 2nd century A.D. the Chinese had discovered printing. They had at their disposal the three elements necessary for printing: paper, ink and surfaces bearing texts carved in relief. By the 6th century wood blocks had appeared. To make a print, the wood block was inked, a sheet of paper spread on it. Only one side of the sheet could be printed.
About 1041-48 a Chinese alchemist made movable type. He composed texts by placing types, made of an amalgam of clay and glue hardened by baking, on an iron plate coated with a mixture of resin, was and paper ash. This plate was heated and then cooled and the type solidified. Type could be reused.
The invention of paper played a very important part in the development of books. In the 11th century the art of papermaking reached Europe but no trace of printing was found in Europe until 1423. Johann Gutenberg is known to have secretely tried out ways of printing in Strasburg, Germany, in 1440.
The alloy used for type was a mix of lead, tin and antinomy – the same components used today.
A 42 line Bible was printed in 1456.
The knowledge of the methods of printing spread so quickly over the continent of Europe that by the year 1487 nearly every country has started printing books. Later people began to learn how to make paper more quickly and cheaply and of better quality.
As a result of this, books became much lighter and smaller.
The first person to print books in the English language was William Caxton, in the Russian language – Ivan Fedorov.
The first book printed in the Russian language appeared in Moscow on the first of March, 1564. Up to that time there were only handwritten books in Russia. The house built for printing books was not far from the Kremlin. At that time it was one of the best buildings in the Russian capital. Ivan Fedorov and his assistants were the first to use Russian letters.
By the 16th century books looked very much as they do today and since then very little change has been made in their appearance.

Упражнение 3. По признакам герундия, отличающим его от причастия, определите, в каких из следующих предложений употребляется герундий, а в каких – причастие. В зависимости от этого переведите предложения.
1. Being in Moscow I visited some museums.
2. While being in Moscow I visited some museums.
3. My friend being in Moscow, I often write to him.
4. My friend's being in Moscow enabled him to visit some museums.
5. They were surprised at his being late.
6. I have just heard of his being in Moscow.
7. Being sent to Moscow he visited some museums.
8. His being sent to Moscow was quite unexpected.
9. They object to his being sent to Moscow.
10. Some of our students being sent to Moscow, our group had some difficulties in carrying out the experiments.
11. I insisted on his letter being sent today.
12. Having been cooled for two hours the mixture was examined.
13. The experiment having been carried out, the students went home.
14. Her having finished her work in time was reported by her friends.
15. Everything depended on your finishing work in time.
16. My friends having finished their work. the results were published in the magazine.
17. They succeeded in having finished their work in time.

Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на –ing-forms.
1. He likes telling such stories.
2. We spent much time lying in the sun and swimming during our holidays.
3. When will you begin studying this subject?
4. Having turned on the radio we began listening to the evening program.
5. After having been asked by the teacher she went on doing her work.
6. While changing his report he used many reference-books.
7. The student trying out the new material has a good knowledge of English.
8. Having finished his drawing he showed it to the teacher.
9. His method of printing booklets is very interesting.
10. Instead of using an automatic device he made this work by hand.
11. Printing appeared in Russia in the 16th century, Ivan Fedorov being the pioneer of printing books in Russia.
12. The courses having been completed, Tsiolkovsky was given the post of a teacher.

Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на герундий.
1. After coming home I began to help about the house.
2. She passed by without recognizing one.
3. In reciting the poem he missed a line.
4. I was greatly surprised at hearing the news.
5. She went to bed without putting out the light.
6. I learn the words by repeating them many times.
7. After finishing his lessons he began to watch TV program.
8. After writing a letter he went to the post office.
9. He listened attentively without interrupting.
10. Before passing his exams he worked hard 8 hours a day.
11. I must think a little before answering.
12. I don’t like being spoken in such a manner.
13. Nick sent a telegram without telling me about it.
14. His having failed at the examination was unexpected.
15. I am surprised at his being asked at the lesson every day.
16. His being busy didn’t prevent him from taking part in this work.

Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод слов, образованных путем конверсии.
1. The region is cut into two parts by the river.
2. There was a deep cut on his hand.
3. We couldn’t find a dry place anywhere.
4. Why have they placed the bridge here?
5. The battalion approached the town under the cover of the night.
6. Rivers are covered with ice in winter.
7. Dinner has been ordered for 5 o’clock.
8. The soldier must obey the order.
9. The people visited the exhibition.
10. His short visit came to an end but the tried to continue the talk.
11. Many houses are made of wood.
12. The British museum houses many different collections.
13. People will show us the new building.
14. The show began at 6 o’clock.
15. The girl offered him a glass of tea.
16. They found his offer very ingenious.

Text 1B
Задание 1. Прочтите текст, стараясь понять основное содержание (Заметьте время начала и окончания чтения. Этот текст нужно прочесть за 3 минуты, из расчета 90 слов в минуту).
From the time immemorial (незапамятный) men have endeavoured (пытались) to establish a graphic record of their achievements (достижения) in the struggle with the forces of nature. Before the invention of the printing press and paper, all books were written by hand on papyrus, on parchment (пергамент) or an animal skin which was specially treated (обработанный). In the year 105 A.D. a Chinese named Ts’si Lun invented paper, and then the Chinese began to print with wood blocks (клише) on which letters were cut and inked.
The next great printing discovery was movable type (шрифт) made of lead (свинец) so that the tiresome job of cutting wood blocks was eliminated (устранена). Finally, around the year 1440, Johann Gutenberg invented the fist printing press which was operated by hand.
Hundreds of improvements have been invented for the printing press. In 1814 Friedrich Koenig invented the first cylinder press (плоскопечатная машина) which was later used by the “London Times”, and in 1866 Mergenthaler invented the Linotype machine.
Book-printing in Russia was first introduced in the middle of the XVIth century by Ivan Grozni. In 1553 he gave orders to build a house for this purpose in Nicolskaya street in Moscow. Ten years of hard labour were spent on constructing the house and preparing for printing.
In April 1563, Ivan Fedorov, the organizer of the Printing House, and his closest assistant Peter Mstislavets started setting type and printing “Apostle”, the first book in Russia.
Задание 2. Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию текста.
1. Paper was invented by:
a) a Chinese, b) by a German, c) by an Englishman.
2. Movable type was invented:
a) before the printing press, b) after the printing press,
c) before the invention of paper.
3. The first printing press was operated:
a) by hand, b) by a motor, c) automatically.
4. Book-printing in Russia appeared:
a) in 1553, b) in the beginning of the 16th century, c) in 1563.
5. Koenig invented:
a) the first printing press, b) the movable type, c) the cylinder press.

Text 1C

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.

It was about 1473-74 that the first book in English was being printed by William Caxton. Caxton learned to print in Cologne and the interesting fact is that both the pioneer printers of Oxford and Cambridge came from that town – Theodore Rood at Oxford and Johann Lair von Siegburg at Cambridge.
Theodore Rood printed the first book at Oxford in 1478. How closely the University authorities controlled the early printers is not known, but they encouraged a printer, Joseph Barnes, to set up his own business in 1585 and gave him the title “Printer to the University”. He and his successors in the next hundred years had small resources and were not equipped for learned work. The idea of a Press owned by the University and controlled by its authorities is due to Archbishop Laud.
Laud considered that University printers were to be thoroughly acquainted with Greek and Latin literature and deeply learned in philological studies. Laud was executed but he had laid the basis of learned printing. John Well carried on Laud’s work. He had presses installed and equipped them with the types which now bear his name. From 1672 to 1686 Fell took charge of printing and publishing for the University. By 1883 the mounting volume of general publishing called for reorganization and enlargement of the printing business. Horace Hart became Controller and Printer to the University and remained until 1915.
Hart introduced up-to-date equipment, including mechanical typesetting. His activities have been carried forward by his successors, including the present Printer, Vivian Ridler.
The printing of dictionaries on reelfed rotary presses was begun in 1959, and photocomposition was introduced in 1960. The bindary has been mechanized and now produces several million bound books a year.

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. Who was the first English printer?
2. Who began printing at Oxford?
3. Who began printing at Cambridge?
4. When was the first book at Oxford printed?
5. Who laid the basis of learned printing at Oxford?
6. When was photocomposition introduced at Oxford?
7. What are dictionaries printed on now?
8. How many books a year are produced now at Oxford?

Задание 3. Прочтите текст еще раз. Озаглавьте его.

Text 1D

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.

In the course of the 19th century several important innovations laid the foundation for a number of printing techniques that were not directly related to Gutenberg’s invention.
Reproduction of illustrations.
The first process for reproducing illustrations was xylography, using wood cuts that printed in relief and that therefore could be combined with letterpress, the picture blocks and the pieces of type for texts being locked into the same form. As early as the second half of the 15th century, xylography faced competition from engraving on metal that printed by intaglio; the metal plate (cooper, sometimes brass, zink and even steel after 1806), engraved with a tool or etched with acid, was inked and carefully wiped so that ink remained only in incisions and was transferred to paper under pressure in a cylinder press. Since the intaglio method of printing was not compatible with woodcut printing, sheets of texts and of illustration for the same book had to be printed separately.
Presses for printing curved intaglio engraved plates were perfected during the 19th century with mechanized inking with the use of rollers and wiping with the use of reflowing cloth bands or rotating disks covered with calico.
Lithography.
The third printing process that had undergone significant development was lithography. In 1796 Aloys Senefelder of Prague investigated the properties of a stone with a calcium carbonate base and a fine, homogeneous, porous surface. A design drawn on its surface with greesy ink, wetted with water and then brushed with ordinary ink, retained the ink only on the design. The latter could be reproduced on a sheet of paper pressed against the stone. Senefelder further established that a metal such as zink had the same properties.
By 1850 the first mechanized lithographic press with a cylinder, flannel – covered rollers for wetting, and rollers for inking was perfected. The fact that it was possible to replace the stone by a zink plate that could be curved made it possible to build rotary presses (the first in 1868) in which the paper passed between the plate-bearing cylinder and the impression cylinder.
Photosensitivity, Gravure and Rotogravure.
In the 1820s Joseph-Nicephore Niepce established that certain chemical compounds are sensitive to light. This marked the origins of photogravure and led to both the invention of photography (between 1829 and 1838) and the use of photographic processes for the printed reproduction of photographs.
In 1852 William Henry Fox Talbot, a. British scientist and inventor invented the screen and also opened the way for a new development in intaglio printing: rotogravure.
The screen was perfected in 1880s, by substituting for the cloth two sheets of glass with uniform parallel lines that crossed perpendicularly. The screen made possible letterpress and lithographic reproduction of the full range of tones by using the effect of the diffusion of light through the mesh of its grid.
In 1862-64 G.W. Swan of Britain invented carbon tissue, paper coated with gelatin that can be rendered photosensitive and exposed to light before being applied to a metal surface of any shape.
In 1878 a Czech, Karl Klietsch, thought of copying a grid screen directly onto carbon tissue, which could be used to transfer the cells necessary for intaglio printing to a cylinder at the same time as the image to be reproduced. In 1895 Klietsch, with English colleagues, founded the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company, which published reproductions of pictures on paper by rotogravure. They kept their process a secret.
In a parallel way patents for a slightly different process, in which the image to be reproduced was screened before making the impression on the carbon tissue, were taken out in Germany and the United States. But a workman from the Rembrandt Intaglio Printing Company emigrated to the United States in 1903 and there revealed their secret, and rotogravure became widespread.
Задание 2. Озаглавьте текст 1D.

Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту 1D.
1. What was the first process for reproducing illustrations?
2. When were presses for printing intaglio-engraved plates perfected?
3. Who investigated the properties of a stone?
4. What other achievement belongs to this scientist and inventor?
5. What innovations were made in the lithographic press in the 19th century?
6. Who found new properties in certain chemical compounds?
7. What enabled photography to appear?
8. Who invented the screen?
9. What did the invention of the screen result in?
10. What was the essential of Klietsch’s invention?
11. What new printing process appeared owing to Klietrch’s investigations?

Oral Practice

Topic. My Future Profession

1. You are second-year students. You began to acquire knowledge concerning you future profession of a graphic arts technologist. Say a few words about the reasons of choosing this speciality. Give information about:
1) the department you study at;
2) the subjects you study;
3) scientists–teachers reading lectures and giving lessons;
4) the main subject you should study to master your speciality quite properly;
5) the place where you have practice;
6) what you like and what you don’t like at the Technical University.

2. Listen to the information.
Books, newspapers, magazines are the memory of mankind. We are responsible for this memory because our department trains engineers for graphic arts industry. We are future engineers-technologists. Our main task is to perfect technology. It may be achieved by the introduction of new equipment and technological processes.
One of the main subjects for us is chemistry. We study all kinds of chemistry: organic, inorganic, analytic, physical and collodial. We also study many special subjects: fundamentals of graphic arts technology, light technique.
Graphic arts technologists should have good knowledge of printing processes, equipment and materials. Different printing and binding presses are available in our workshops and laboratories and we not only observe their work but make attempts to use them producing some graphic arts items while having practice.
There is a print-shop at the Technical University. It has the staff of engineers, technicians and pressmen. They take all the necessary steps to keep the mechanical equipment in perfect order. Engineers-technologists take care that all process steps are properly carried out and all printing materials are suited for each printing process.
But at first every item to be printed goes to the Art-and-Copy Preparation Department. At this department the purpose, contents and appearance of the item to be printed are determined. A great number of specialists work at this department. Most of them are graduates of the Technical University.
We understand that we should study properly to become good specialists in our field of activity. Many students of our department take part in scientific research. They investigate processes and materials and make reports at scientific conferences. The results of their research are used at graphic arts enterprises.
The graduates of our department work at enterprises, research institutes, designing and technological organizations all over our country.

3. Прочитайте текст и разделите его на смысловые части.

4. Сделайте короткие сообщения о подготовке специалистов полиграфии-ческого производства используя следующие группы слов:
а) the memory of mankind, main task, to perfect technology, equipment, technological processes;
b) the main subject, good knowledge, to be available, to produce, graphic arts items;
c) print-shop, to take the necessary steps, to carry out, to suit;
d) Art-and-Copy Preparation Department, to determine, purpose, contents, appearance, graduates;
e) to take part in, to investigate, enterprise, research, organizations.


​ Lesson 2

Грамматика: Инфинитив (Infinitive).
Формы инфинитива.
Основные функции инфинитива.

Основной текст А: Offset Printing.

Формы инфинитива

Active
Passive
Indefinite
To give
To be given
Continuous
To be giving
-
Perfect
To have given
To have been given

Функции инфинитива
Инфинитив является основной неличной формой глагола, от которой образуются все личные формы во всех временах. Формальный признак инфинитива – частица to (to read – читать, to live – жить). Перевод инфинитива зависит от его функции в предложении. Инфинитив может выполнять следующие функции.
1. Подлежащего:
To design plans of new buildings is the work of an architect.
Составлять проекты новых зданий – работа архитектора.
2. Части основного сказуемого:
A natural desire of people is to study.
Учиться – это естественное желание людей.
To live is to work. Жить – значит работать.
3. Дополнения:
Не often forgot to register the results of the experiment.
Он часто забывал записать результаты эксперимента.
He promised to come at once.
Он обещал прийти сейчас же.
4. Обстоятельства.
Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства может стоять или в начале, или в конце предложения. Он отвечает на вопрос «для чего?» и может вводиться союзом so as (to) и in order to – для того, чтобы.
Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства переводится инфинитивом с союзом «для того, чтобы», «чтобы» или отглагольным существительным с предлогом «для».
1. (In order) to get this book I had to go to the library.
Для того, чтобы получить эту книгу, мне пришлось пойти в библиотеку.
2. We study English (so as) to read English books on our specialty.
Мы изучаем иностранный язык, чтобы читать книги по специальности.
5. Определения.
Инфинитив в функции определения стоит после определяемого существительного, чаще всего имеет форму страдательного залога и отвечает на вопрос «какой?».
Инфинитив в функции определения переводится определительным придаточным предложением, сказуемое которого имеет оттенок долженствования или будущего времени, например:
The book to be translated is in that bookcase.
Книга, которую нужно перевести, находится в книжном шкафу (Книга, которая будет переведена, находится в книжном шкафу).
Инфинитив в функции определения после порядковых числительных the first, the second и пр. или после прилагательного the last переводится личной формой глагола в том времени, в котором стоит сказуемое английского предложения.
He is always the first to come.
Он всегда приходит первым.
She was the last to join the group.
Она последней присоединилась к группе.

Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на инфинитив.
1. Soldiers and cossacs went to Siberia to find gold.
2. I am to go on an excursion tomorrow.
3. In order to be a concert pianist it is necessary to practice many hours every day.
4. We are glad to have met you.
5. The rules to be studied were very important.
6. Our task is to study English.
7. We decided to meet in the park.
8. The house to be built next month is of the newest construction.
9. To speak English well it is necessary to practice hard.
10. They can take part in social work.
11. He was the last to speak at yesterday’s meeting.
12. The film to be demonstrated at our club consists of two parts.
13. To be a good doctor it is necessary to study for many years.
14. The problem to be solved by our students is very difficult.
Упражнение 2. Определите, в каких предложениях инфинитив выступает в функции подлежащего, в каких – в функции обстоятельства. Переведите данные предложения на русский язык.
1. To connect different districts of the city different means of transport are used.
2. To connect different regions of Siberia was not easy.
3. To make Omsk a garden – city many trees and flowers are planted every year.
4. To make the plan simpler is our task.
5. To speak much was not necessary.
6. To speak at the meeting she trained very much.
7. To pass examinations well students must work hard.
8. To attend all lectures is our duty.
9. To enter the Institute he studied at the preparatory courses for two months.
10. To retell children interesting stories was his hobby.

Упражнение 3. Докажите, что в данных предложениях инфинитив выступает в функции определения. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The lectures to be delivered are of great interest for the students.
2. The material to be studied is prepared in the laboratory.
3. The lecture to be attended by this delegation will take place in the hall.
4. The book to be translated is on the table.
5. The methods to be analyzed were used at our research institute.
6. He was the last to come to the meeting.
7. The scientist was the first to discover a new element.
8. German Titov was the second to fly into space.

Инфинитивные обороты

В английском языке часто после ряда глаголов употребляется сложное дополнение, состоящее из существительного в общем падеже или местоимения в объектном падеже + инфинитив. Эта конструкция называется «объектный инфинитивный оборот». Объектный инфинитивный оборот переводится придаточным предложением.
Например:
We know Isaac Newton to express the connection between force and motion in the form of laws.
Мы знаем, что Ньютон выразил связь между силой и движением в форме законов.
Инфинитив может входить также в состав так называемого «субъектного инфинитивного оборота».
Субъектный инфинитивный оборот состоит из существительного или местоимения в именительном падеже и связанного с ним по смыслу инфинитива. Инфинитив в данном случае обозначает действие и переводится глаголом-сказуемым, а стоящее между ними сказуемое переводится неопределённо-личным предложением (типа «известно, говорят, сообщают» и т.д.).
The delegation is reported to come on Monday.
Сообщают, что делегация приедет в понедельник.

Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.
1. The students knew their friend to have served in the army.
2. We expected our team to win the first place.
3. They consider this plan to be an interesting one.
4. She knows her friend to be fond of music.
5. My mother wishes me to play the piano.
6. We know her to have been living here for 2 years.
7. The teacher supposes our group to be good at exact sciences.
8. I understand this work to be a difficult one.
9. We heard her sing very well.
10. The students consider their laboratories to be equipped with modern instruments.
11. The professor ordered the research to be done by the end of the year.
12. Our monitor wants all the students of her group to pass the exams well.
13. I don’t want you to miss lectures.
14. Our teacher expects us to take part in the competition.
15. My sister wants me to get a scholarship.

Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.
1. They are known to do their work well.
2. They have been heard to speak about this problem.
3. The students were supposed to know that law.
4. The children were seen to enter the house.
5. This method is believed to have given good results.
6. The method has been considered to give accurate results.
7. He seems to know this rule.
8. They seemed to listen attentively.
9. You seem to have forgotten about it.
10. Your friend appears to work hard.
11. The weather appears to be improving.
12. The picture proved to be the best at the exhibition.
13. This method proves to be reliable.
14. The process has proved to be complicated.
15. The process proves to give good results.

Vocabulary Notes

Задание. Прочитайте новые слова вслух, познакомьтесь с их русскими эквивалентами. Определите их значения в данных предложениях.

1. grease – жир
greasy – жирный
Greasy ink repels water from printing areas in planographic printing.
2. to grind (ground, ground) – шлифовать, полировать
The plate must be carefully ground and polished.
3. to etch – травить
Etching and engraving are processes mostly used in gravure printing.
4. to moisten – увлажнять, смачивать
To moisten offset plates he used water.
5. ink – краска
to ink – окрашивать
Printing areas are inked and non – printing areas repel greasy inks.
6. linseed oil – льняное масло
Linseed oil is widely used in offset printing.
7. varnish – лак
Inks and varnishes are applied in different branches of industry.
8. to adhere – прилипать, приставать
To moisten offset plates he used water.
9. to repel – отталкивать
repulsion – отталкивание
Repulsion of ink by the non – image areas of the printing form is the principle of planographic printing.
10. breakthrough – прорыв
Many technical breakthroughs took place in the 20th century.
11. offset – офсет, офсетная печать
to offset – печатать офсетным способом; смещать
The printing form first offsets the ink to the printing cylinder and then from the cylinder the ink is transferred to the printing stock.
12. flexible – гибкий
Only flexible image – carriers are used in rotary printing.
13. rubber – резина
Natural and synthetic rubber is a resilient material.
14. to transfer – переносить
The inked image is transferred from the blanket cylinder.
15. substrate – подложка, материал
Different substrates can be used in offset printing.
16. course – шероховатый, грубый
Coarse substrates can be printed more easily than smooth ones.
17. advantage – преимущество
Offset printing has many advantages for printing on paper.
18. to apply – применять
application – применение
Application of efficient and economical printing forms greatly improved offset printing.
19. to absorb – впитывать
Inks should be quickly absorbed by printing surfaces.
20. gloss – лоск
Gloss is one of paper qualities.
21. to employ – применять, использовать
Stone plates were employed for over 100 years.

Text 2A
Задание. Прочтите текст.
Offset Printing
It is over 200 years ago that Alois Senefelder invented the lithographic planographic printing process. Around 350 years earlier Gutenberg had introduced letterpress printing with moveable print elements (letters). Senefelder initially adopted this letterpress technique by using grease ink to write on carefully ground and polished Solnhofer slate and etch away the free areas leaving the remaining writing slightly raised.
But he then discovered that if he moistened the surface of the stone with water before inking, etching was no longer necessary and, when inked, the non – image areas no longer took up ink. The ink, which consisted of linseed oil varnish, only adhered to the written areas. The acceptance of ink by the printing areas or repulsion by the non image areas of the printing form has to this day remained the principle of planographic printing.
For over 100 years stone plates were used as the printing form in planographic printing. However, the considerably higher performance of the rotary printing process required a cylindrical printing form. The stone was replaced with grained zinc and aluminum plates with a polymer or varnish in the printing areas.
The technical breakthrough in planographic printing cannot, however, be attributed purely to the fact that the printing form can be produced simply and economically. The move from direct printing to indirect printing was also extremely significant. With direct printing the printing form prints the substrate directly, while with indirect printing, the printing form first offsets the ink to another printing cylinder with a flexible rubber surface(hence the term offset), and it is this rubber that then transfers the ink onto the substrate. This enables coarse substrates to be printed more easily, i. e. more smoothly.
In around 1904, the Americans Ira William Rubel, Fletcher Rogers and Caspar Hermann recognized the technical advantages of offset printing for printing on paper. The technical race for the construction of offset printing presses had begun.
In particular the pre–printing stage has been revotionized in recent years. Plates produced film – free are practically state – of the – art, and the consistent development towards faster and more individual printing form manufacture is reflected in the first practical testing of direct imaging in the printing machine (computer – to – press).
The speed of printing is also being constantly increased.
In waterless offset printing it is possible to print without the use of water due to a special printing plate and ink design, and a printing plate for this application has been on the market since 1972. The plate repels ink in the non – printing areas even without moistening.
The efficient and economical manufacture of printing forms and the highly developed machine technology have certainly contributed to the success of offset printing.

Упражнение 6. Определите функции инфинитива и переведите предложе-ния на русский язык.
1. We know Lobachevsky to have dictated his «Pangeometry».
2. This is the material to be analysed.
3. This gas is to be used in our experiment.
4. Edison began to work when he was a boy.
5. This document is known to be of great interest for scientists.
6. Lobachevsky is considered to be «Copernicus of Geometry».
7. The lecture to be attended will take place at our Institute.
8. They must know this law.
9. We study English to read English books on our specialty.
10. In order to prove his theory Lobachevsky worked for many years.
11. They expect a new station to be put into operation next year.
12. To read books is useful.
13. She saw us go to the library.
14. Lomonosov is known to have founded the first University in Russia.

Упражнение 7. Определите функции инфинитива и переведите предложе-ния на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитив.
1. This material is found to be useful.
2. This material is to be found in nature.
3. The metal to be found in this ore is of great importance.
4. He found this material to be very important.
5. The teacher wants this text to be translated at the lesson.
6. The text to be translated at the lesson was brought by the teacher.
7. This text is expected to be translated without a dictionary.
8. This text is to be translated without a dictionary.
9. They consider this book to be very difficult.
10. This book is considered to be difficult.
11. These facts are to be taken into consideration.
12. The facts to be considered are very complicated.

Упражнение 8. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитив.
1. Many machines are produced in Russia to bring mechanization into the composing process.
2. The design to be printed may to put on the metal plate by drawing directly on the metal.
3. In 1553 Ivan Grozni gave orders to build a house for printing.
4. The machine sends signals to control the operation of this section.
5. To produce a necessary surface on metal plates several processes have been tried out.
6. We suppose different papers to be used for particular printing methods.
7. Printing presses for letterpress work are known to be of three main types.
8. They consider this machine to be very good.
9. They are said to use these metals in platemaking.
10. Many German printing presses are known to be among the best models of the world.
11. We know the first Russian composing and casting machine to have been produced in 1937.
12. To explain this simple fact is not so very easy.
13. The purpose of this machine is to obtain a composition on a photo film.
14. The operator began to compose the next line.

Text 2B

Задание. Прочтите текст, стараясь понять его основное содержание (время просмотра текста 6 минут).

Letterpress Printing
Letterpress is the oldest form of printing; it is the method we have is mind when we speak of the invention of printing by Johannes Gutenberg more than 500 years ago. Printing and letterpress were synonymous until a relatively short time ago because letterpress was, and still is, the only reproduction method capable of using metallic types in the press. Metallic types on their part were historically the exclusive means for printing of reading matter. This condition remained unchanged for more than 200 years. It was first modified in the eighteenth century by the invention of stereotyping. Stereotypes made it possible to replace individual types for presswork with cast metal plates made from the original composition. The invention of electrotyping, made in the nineteenth century, added a second kind of duplicate plates and made it possible to free letterpress further from the limitations imposed on press construction and presswork by composition consisting of metallic types. But in spite of duplicate plates and composing machines, which were developed in the last third of the nineteenth century, metallic type remained the only means for converting reading matter into standardized letter forms. The next big step ahead was made after World War II when non – metallic composition became possible.
The exclusive ability of letterpress to print directly from metallic types distinguished letterpress for hundreds of years from other printing methods. Even at present this ability can make letterpress a most economical printing method for jobs consisting mainly of reading matter, particularly when it is possible to print the whole job directly from type.
Letterpress is especially well represented in job – and commercial printing. This is the name for printing as a service business. At this point it must be mentioned that many printed products can be produced by several printing methods. The zone of interchangeability of printing processes and methods is growing: consequently, we may find the same product listed as examples for the use of more than a single printing process or method.
Letterpress is the traditional method for the printing of books: it serves for the production of most magazines, many in relatively small editions, but some of an enormous circulation. Other products produced by letterpress include advertising materials; envelopes and calling cards, catalogs of various kinds; labels, business forms; tickets and many other items. As mentioned before, most of these products are not necessarily printed in letterpress but can also be produced by other printing methods.
One of the reasons for the great popularity of the letterpress method lies in its ability to produce printing in almost any required quantity with economy and dispatch.

Упражнение 9. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту 2В
1. Who invented printing?
2. When was printing invented?
3. What is the characteristic feature of letterpress?
4. What is the advantage of stereotypes?
5. When did non – metallic composition appear?
6. Can a printed product be produced by several printing methods?
7. What can be printed by letterpress?
8. Why is letterpress printing still popular?

Text 2C

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.

1. Duplicate plates are extremely important relief image carriers. They made it possible to free letterpress from the limitations imposed by composition consisting of individual metallic types. Duplicate plates can be divided into four types: stereotypes, electrotypes, plastic plates and rubber plates. There are some distinctive features of duplicate plates.
2. Duplicate plates can be curved and used for long – run printing. All long – run printing is based on rotary presses. As type forms must be used flat and cannot be curved, they cannot serve for rotary printing. Their place is taken by curved duplicate plates. Some kinds of duplicate plates are made either flat or curved, others can be made flat and then curved, still others are sufficiently flexible not to need separate curving as they will conform by their own flexibility to the curvature of the cylinder.
3. Excellent wearing qualities are an important requirement for long – run printing. Duplicate plates rate highly in this respect. They have a much longer press life than the original material from which they are made. A chromium – faced electrotype, for example, will last ten times as long as the photoengraving from which it was made.
4. Duplicate plates permit the combining of many different original elements in a single image – carrier. Foundry types, slugs of type, wood engravings, photo engravings, and, if necessary, already existing stereotypes and electrotypes can all be combined for duplicate platemaking.
5. Rubber and plastic are materials which are not suitable for typesetting and photoengraving. But some methods of relief printing – flexography for example – cannot use image carriers consisting of metals but must have for their purposes more resilient materials such as natural or synthetic rubber. The only way to obtain such image carriers is by duplicate platemaking.
6. Special techniques can be used to correct some defects of original materials during the manufacturing steps of duplicate platemaking. Some duplicate plates are much lighter and less bulky than original material.
This feature is important where plates must be stored for laer re – printing. Plastic duplicate plates, for example, which are widely used in book printing, occupy much less space than the original type forms from which they are molded. Duplicate plates are also much less heavy than these, a fact not to be forgotten.

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. How many types of duplicate plates do you know? What are they?
2. What plates are used for rotary printing? Why?
3. Why are duplicate plates used for long – run printing?
4. What different elements can be combined for duplicate platemaking?
5. How are rubber plates obtained?
6. What features of duplicate plates are important when they are stored for re – printing?

Text 2D

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.

The anodized aluminum plate
Litho stone has traditionally been regarded as the ideal lithographic surface for very definite reasons, because it is porous and able to readily accept both image and non – image areas equally. The printing from stones was obviously limited to the use of slow, flat – bed machines. To enable lithographers to use rotary presses a substitute plate, which could be wrapped around a cylinder, had to be found. Zinc plates were used for many years and later aluminium, but it was found necessary to grain the surface in an attempt to simulate the porous nature of the stone and thereby allow a minimum of water to be retained on the plate to give efficient damping to keep the non – image areas clean.
The use of grained plates is far from ideal. The grain structure tends to cause tonal distortion, resulting in the characteristic broken – edged dots. Their use was further complicated by their tendency to oxidise.
Aluminum has a natural oxide layer which improves its ability to retain moisture, but which sometimes causes a form of corrosion called oxidation .Plate maintenance and treatment to prevent oxidation could represent a considerable addition to machine time, particularly in the case of multi – colour presses.
It was because of these problems that the anodized aluminium plate was developed and introduced successfully onto the market in the 1950s. The anodizing process is of an electro – chemical nature, which encourages the growth of the natural oxide layer, under carefully controlled conditions, to produce the anodic film – 99.9 per cent pure aluminium is used.
The new metal is treated in a caustic solution which cleans it and magnifes any faults. The plate is then given a fine grain, usually by chemicals, and again immersed in the caustic bath to bleach it light grey. This colour allows the eventual image to be more readily visible.
The plates are placed in the anodizing bath which is lead – lined and filled with approximately 15 per cent sulphuric acid solution. The lead lining acts as the cathode and the aluminium plate as the anode. At 20 oC a low current is passed through the bath, oxygen is released from the solution and the natural oxide layer is encouraged to grow as an integral part of the plate. At first a barrier layer is built up and then a cell layer containing minute pores. The thickness of the anodic layer is about 3 microns.
When the plate is fully anodized it will not oxidise further and therefore stoppages for plate treatment are kept to a minimum, and plates do not have to be gummed - up for short stops. Anodized aluminum not only overcomes the problem of oxidation, but the anodic layer has lithographic qualities similar to litho stone. The capillaries in the non – image areas retain a minimum of moisture to give efficient damping, and with the smooth surface allow fine tonal reproductions.
The advantages of the deep – etch process can be combined with those of the anodized plate. The only variations being the use of suitable etches which open and enlarge the pores in the anodic layer to accept the lacquer base and therefore the image is virtually absorbed into the porous surface, which gives the plate a much longer press life.
By varying the voltage applied and the temperature of the anodizing bath the purity of the anodic film may be varied. Such a surface is available and accepts presensitised plate coatings. This has extended the range of presensitised plates, not only in length of run but in printing quality.
Multi – metals
Litho plates must have two distinct and opposing areas, called oleophilic and hydrophilic, which are formed on the one surface. Initially, lithographers observed that certain plates accepted grease far more readily than others, whilst others were more easily dampened. For example, the images on zinc plates tended to spread and thicken and it was once necessary to have a relatively course grain to retain sufficient moisture to keep the non – image clean. The reverse was found to be the case with grained aluminium – work tended to sharpen and a fine grain was used as water was easily retained.
Therefore it was logically assumed that if an oleophilic material could be used for the image and a hydrophilic one for the non – image an ideal plate would be produced.
Although more expensive than other plates the multi – metal is still relatively inexpensive when compared to other printing surfaces. The matt chromium surface of approximately 1,5 microns is hard and friction resistant and will not oxidize readily and therefore gumming up is not necessary for short press stops. Whichever multi – metal plate is used, they will give extremely long runs and prove to be efficient and require little damping to reproduce high – quality work.
The selection of a particular plate must be governed by several factors, the principle being: length of run, whether the job is to be reprinted, cost, and reproduction quality.
The quality of reproduction is also important. In this context it must be remembered that although it is possible to reproduce fine halftones on the plate, the plate is not the end product and must print well on the press. This is where the damping qualities of the non – image areas play a major part. Often a printer may select a more costly long run plate, such as anodized deep – etch or tri – metals which are capable of printing fine – quality work for a relatively short run but where a high standard is the key factor.
Oral Practice
Topic. Advantages and Disadvantages of Offset Lithography and Letterpress Printing.
You are all students of Graphic Arts Department. You’d like to get the idea about kinds of printing and technological processes used to obtain the finished product, the most magic miracle of all miracles in the world the name of which is «Book».

I. Прослушайте или прочитайте информацию.

Letterpress is the oldest form of printing. This method was invented by Johannes Gutenberg 500 years ago. Letterpress is the most economical method of printing because it prints directly from metallic types. In the letterpress process the printing is performed by means of a raised surface: the type or blocks that are to be printed are raised above the non- printing areas.
Letterpress is used for printing of books, magazines, business forms, tickets and so on. Most of these products are not necessarily printed in letterpress but can also be produced by other printing methods. Letterpress uses a lot of image-carriers. They can be divided into metallic composition, different kinds of pictorial image-carriers which can combine type images with pictures and a number of different duplicate plates. Four kinds of duplicate plates can be used in letterpress; stereotypes, electrotypes, rubber-plates and plastic plates.
Electrotypes are the best duplicate plates. They are used for printing long runs with the highest quality and precision. Presses for letterpress printing may be divided into three groups: platen presses, flat-bed cylinder presses and rotary presses. Platen and flat-bed cylinder presses which can print from type forms are used for the production of shorter runs than rotary presses. Rotary presses can print much faster than platen and flat-bed cylinder presses and are therefore used for long runs.
Plane printing uses printing image-carriers on which the printing areas and the non-printing areas are in the same plane.
The principle of plane printing is based on the fact that grease and water do not mix. Non-printing surfaces receive water solution and printing areas must receive greasy ink and repel water. At present, offset lithography is the most important method of plane printing. It can produce many kinds of products. For example, books, magazines, newspapers, maps, package materials and so on. Offset lithography is an indirect printing method. In direct printing methods the printing image-carrier is inked and the resulting ink image is directly transferred, or impressed, into the printing stock where it becomes the printed image. In offset lithography the ink image is not transferred to the stock but applied to an intermediate surface called the blanket. From the blanket the ink image is then transferred again, now to the stock where it becomes the final printed image.
Numerous presses are used for offset printing. Some of them are made for printing of sheets and some – for printing of webs. Web presses are faster than sheet-fed ones.
II. Ответьте на вопросы, используя данные в скобках слова.
1. What kinds of duplicate plates for letterpress do you know?
(stereotypes, electrotypes, plastic plates, rubber plates).
2. What kinds of presses for letterpress do you know?
(platen, cylinder, rotary).
3. For what runs are electrotypes used?
(long).
4. What quality have electrotypes?
(highest).
5. What presses print faster: rotary or cylinder?
(rotary).
6. What kinds of production are printed by letterpress?
(books, magazines, business forms).
7. Where are printing and non – printing areas situated in plane printing?
(in the same plane).
8. What presses are used for offset printing?
(web presses, sheet-fed presses).
9. Where is the ink image applied in offset printing?
(blanket).
10. Where is the ink image transferred from the blanket?
(the printing stock).

III. Разделите текст на смысловые части.

IV. Озаглавьте каждую часть текста.

V. Сделайте короткие сообщения на тему «Высокая печать» по данным группам слов.
a. letterpress, invent, method of printing, use, print, produce;
b. image-carriers, divide into, duplicate plates, stereotype, electrotype, plastic plate, rubber plate, run;
c. rotary, flat-bed cylinder press, platen press, therefore, faster.

VI. Сделайте короткое резюме текста о высокой печати, используя выражения:
The subject of the text is……
It is necessary to point out…
Further I should like to say some words about…
VII. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What products can offset printing produce?
2. What is the most important method of plane printing?
3. What is the principle of lithography?
4. Is offset lithography an indirect printing method?
5. What is the difference between direct and indirect printing methods?
6. What does the blanket serve for?
7. What machines work faster: web presses or sheet- fed ones?

VIII. Обменяйтесь репликами о плоской печати типа:
I think that…I suppose that….What is your opinion about…

IX. Составьте краткую аннотацию текста о плоской печати, используя выражения:
The subject of the text is…The text points out that….. It is shown that…The next part of the text is devoted to….The text also discusses….

X. Сделайте короткие сообщения о плоской печати, об офсетной печати, о машинах для плоской печати, используя данные группы слов.
a. plane, plane printing, grease, water, mix, printing, non- printing, surfaces, receive, repel;
b. indirect, ink image, transfer, apply, intermediate surface, blanket;
c. web press, sheet – fed press, print, fast.

XI. Выскажите свои соображения о достоинствах и недостатках высокой и плоской печати.

​ Lesson 3

Грамматика: Составные предлоги и союзы.
Основной текст А: Intaglio Printing

Составные предлоги

according to - согласно;

because of - из-за;

by means of - посредством;

due to - благодаря;

in addition to - в дополнение к …;

in front of - перед;

in order to - чтобы;

in spite of - несмотря на;

instead of - вместо;

on account of - вследствие, из-за;

owing to - вследствие, благодаря;

thanks to - благодаря

Упражнение 1. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на составные предлоги.

1. According to the information received by us the exhibition will open on May, 10.
2. The fisherman did not go into the open sea because of the storm.
3. All the calculations were made by means of electronic computer.
4. He achieved these results due to his hard work.
5. In addition to the oral examination they are given a written test.
6. The bus stop is just in front of my house.
7. I went to the post office in order to send a telegram.
8. I went on an excursion in spite of the rain.
9. May I go there tomorrow instead of today?
10. He could not go to work in the North on account of his poor health.
11. We could not get there in time owing to a severe storm.
12. The fire was quickly extinguished thanks to the energy of the fire brigade.

Составные союзы

as ... as -
так (же)... как (и);
as long as -
(до тех пор) пока;
аs soon as -
как только;
as well as -
так же как (и);
both ... and -
как ... так и, и ... и;
either...or -
или ... или;
neither...nor -
ни ...ни;
so that -
для того, чтобы; чтобы;
the ... the -
чем ...тем;
not sо ... аs -
не так(ой)...как
Упражнение 2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на составные союзы и предлоги.

1. Mу younger brother is as tall as I am. 2. I shall remember you as long as I live. 3. By means of this device we can carry out more operations now in shorter time. 4. The work is going on according to the time-table. 5. The new equipment was used in order to test the vibration of the engine. 6. You can get to that part of the city either by bus or by the underground. 7. The engine did not operate because of bad fuel. 8. He takes part neither in conferences nor discussions. 9. The monument was restored in spite of many difficulties. 10. The book is interesting as well as useful. 11. Thanks to his help we finished our work early. 12. We decided to cross the mountains so that we could reach the village before dark 13. Who can repair the apparatus instead of him? 14. As soon аs all the calculations are completed, we shall begin the tests. 15. In addition to the usual methods of computation they made use of computers. 16. Both the bridge and the tunnel will be finished in time.

Vocabulary notes

1. to sink (sank, sunken) – опускать (ся), снижать (ся), погружаться
On intaglio image carriers printing areas are sunken below the surfaces.
2. intaglio printing – глубокая печать
Intaglio printing is one of the classic methods of printing.
3. engraving – гравирование
Engraving is used for making intaglio image-carriers.
engraver - гравёр, цинкограф
The engraver works with a hand tool.
4. etching- травление
The plate surface is first protected for etching non-printing areas.
Etchant (mordant) – травящее вещество
The etchant attacks the base metal.
5. to dissolve – растворять (ся)
Mordant dissovles the base metal of the image – carrier.
6. to treat – обрабатывать
The image is treated by the etchant for some time.
7. to deposit- осаждать, давать осадок
Ink is deposited in different areas of the stock.
8. colour value – величина цвета
Colour value is varied to the final printed image.
9. to account for – объяснять
Variation of colour value accounts for the remarkable progress made by intaglio printing in picture reproduction.
10. flexible – гибкий, удобоприменяемый
Intaglio printing is a very flexible process.
11. versatile – многосторонний
Intaglio was so versatile that it developed method after method.
12. quill – перо (гусиное для письма и графики)
Sometimes an artist creates images with a quill.
13. brush – кисть
More often painters use brushes for pictures.
14. to duplicate – воспроизводить, копировать
It is very difficult to duplicate a picture of a talented artist.
16. line – штрих, линия
Intaglio methods developed from line to tone.
17. full – colour printing – полноцветная печать
Full – colour printing can be achieved by intaglio methods.
18. to accomplish – совершать, выполнять
Printmaking is accomplished by a slow, tedious process.
19. roller – валик
Ink is applied by hand or by means of rollers.
20. dabber – тампон
Dabbers are often used for inking plates.
21. to wipe – вытирать
Plate is wiped clean on its surface with a rag.
22. to pull out – вытягивать
Paper pulls out the ink out of intaglio cells.
23. minute – мелкий, мельчайший
The image carrier consists of minute cells.
24. shallow – неглубокий
Intaglio recesses are rather shallow.
25. recess – углубление
Colour value depends on the depth of image recesses.

Text 3A
Задание 1. Прочтите текст.
Intaglio printing is the name of a process family comprising a variety of printing methods which all use printing image- carriers with the printing areas sunken, or embedded, in the depth of the carrier material. Such images are technically known as intaglio as opposed to relief images. In relief printing the ink image comes about in a single operation which consists in applying printing ink to the top surface of the relief image carrier. This surface is identical with the printing image. But in intaglio printing things are quite different. Here the non- printing areas are on the top of the image- carrier whereas the printing image is sunken in the depth of the carrier material.
Printing image carriers for intaglio can be made by engraving, by etching, and by a combination of etching and engraving. The image carrier for intaglio is always a metal plate, usually copper, but possibly also zink or steel. The engraver works with hand tools that are much harder than the plate.
For etching the plate surface is first protected by an acid proof resist in the non – printing areas and left bare in the future printing areas. Then the plate is treated with an etchant, often called mordant, which attacks the base metal, dissolves it and therewith produces an intaglio image. The depth of this image depends, other conditions being equal, on the length of time for which a particular area is treated by the etchant. The longer the etchant can act on the metal, the deeper the image becomes.
Intaglio printing can vary the amount of ink to be deposited in different areas of the stock within the same press run: thereby is added a new feature, variation of colour value, to the final printed image.
This unique ability accounts for the remarkable progress made by intaglio printing in the art and technique of picture reproduction. Intaglio was so flexible, so versatile that it developed method after method until it became possible to reproduce- more or less faithfully by etching and engraving the images which were created by an artist with his pencil, quill or brush. What human hands originated, human hands were also able to duplicate. Step by step, intaglio methods expanded the art of picture printing from line to tone, approaching continuous tone or even achieving a kind of full – colour printing. All this was accomplished long before the invention of photography and photomechanics revolutionized the reproduction of pictures.
Intaglio plates for printmaking are printed on hand presses. As the ink must be very stiff, the plate is usually warmed prior to inking: the ink is applied by hand either with a roller or a dubber. Then the plate is wiped clean on its surface with a rag.
Inking an intaglio plate is far from being a mechanical operation. The appearance of the final print can be greatly changed by the manner in which the plate is inked. The paper must be dampened for printing: thereby it becomes limp and able to pull the ink out of the minute and shallow intaglio recesses of the image carrier.
Printmaking is slow and tedious business, and the number of prints than can be taken from a handmade itaglio plate is relatively small. But printmaking affords a satisfaction of its own to the practicing artist. For the printer, fine – art printmaking connects the industrial present with the handicraft past and with a great tradition of picture reproduction. Such famous artists as Duerer, Rembrand, Goya all made their own etchings, and so did many others.
Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What printing image – cariers are used for intaglio printing?
2. What is the difference between intaglio and relief images?
3. How can image carriers for intaglio be made?
4. What metals are used in intaglio platemaking?
5. How is etching of the plate accomplished?
6. What is the reason of the remarkable progress made by intaglio printing?
7. What method is used for creating intaglio plates?
8. What famous artists accomplished picture reproduction?

Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения, предварительно вспомнив, как переводится причастие I и II, а также независимый причастный оборот.
1. The research work done at this laboratory will greatly help the printers.
2. Working at the composing machine the operator must be very attentive.
3. The illustrations produced at this print shop are always of high quality.
4. Photocomposition being widely used in graphic arts, our country needs more specialists in this field.
5. The man showing the ingredients of the printing inks to the students is our engineer technologist.
6. Gravure plate has many cells of different sizes, some of them holding more ink than the others.

Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия.
1. Printing in lithography is accomplished by applying ink and water solution to the specially treated areas of the plate.
2. You can’t develop graphic arts industry without developing photographic methods.
3. After making the impression the plate is inked again.

Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на составные предлоги и союзы.
1. According to the information the press meets the present – day requirements.
2. The operation of the press was unreliable due to the bad work of the printing unit.
3. The dampening of the plate was made by means of a special device.
4. As soon as you check whether all parts of the machine function well, you may begin the test.
5. The new plastic to be used for this purpose has to be both strong and elastic.
6. Because of frequent breakdowns of the press the task wasn’t carried out in time.
7. The more reliable the operation of the press, the better the results obtained.
8. Не works four hours every evening in addition to the work he does during the day.
9. Neither intaglio nor offset lithography are used for banknote printing.
10. They are going to start the construction of the new shop either this or next summer.

Text 3B

Задание 1. Прочтите текст, стараясь понять основное содержание. (Заметьте время начала и окончания чтения. Этот текст нужно прочесть за 5 минут).

Intaglio, Gravure or Photogravure Printing

Gravure is a method of printing from a cylinder or plate in which the design is sunken below the surface as distinguished (в отличие) from relief printing. Intaglio printing is produced from copper cylinders and plates on sheet –fed and web rotary machines.
The gravure processes which provide the printing surface on the cylinder or plate are almost completely photographic in technique .The sunken portions are cells which hold the ink for impression. We know the cells to be of constant width, which is determined by the screen (растр) used. Screen may be as fine as 300- line, but normal work requires a 150- line screen or approximately 22,000 cells to the square inch. The deeper the etch (травление) the darker the tonal value.
As gravure cylinder is ground and polished to close tolerance (малый допуск) no make- ready (приправка) is necessary. Therefore the first impression is as clear and sharp as the last one and the gravure process does not depend upon individual skill and experience as any other printing method. To make a printed impression, the cylinder or plate revolves in the ink container so that the cells will be filled with ink. Then the cylinder revolves further and the surplus (излишек) ink is mechanically wiped off by a steel scraper (скребок) leaving the non-printing surface clean but permitting the ink to remain in the cells. The cylinder now completes its revolution and the ink remaining in the cells is transferred to the moving web by pressure exerted by a rubber impression roller. This roller presses the web against the engraved cylinder and the web lifts the ink from the cells.

Задание 2. Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию текста.
1. The printing surface on the cylinder or plate is provided by:
a. a printing methods
b. almost photographic methods
c. a scraper
2. The darker tonal value is made by:
a. shallow etch
b. inking
c. deeper etch
3. The ink remaining in the cells is transferred:
a. to the moving web
b. to the cylinder
c. to the ink container
4 Intaglio printing is produced from a cylinder or plate:
a. in which the design is raised above the surface
b. in which the design is on the plane
c. n which the design is sunken below the surface

Text 3C
Задание 1. Прочтите текст, отыскивая в нём ответы на поставленные вопросы.
1. What is sheet- fed gravure?
2. What presses is sheet – fed gravure done on?
3. What presses is rotogravure done on?
4. What image carriers are used for sheet – fed gravure?
5. What image carriers are applied for rotogravure?

Sheet – Fed Gravure and Rotogravure

Sheet – fed gravure and rotogravure are based on photography and photo mechanics: both printing methods are capable of reproducing continuous tone pictures, and also line drawings together with type images. Sheet – fed gravure is often designated as photogravure in distinction from rotogravure. Unfortunately these two names do not indicate the true differences between the two intaglio methods to which they are applied. These differences lie neither in the use of photography on which both methods are based- nor in the rotary principle of printing, because this principle, too, is common to both. Technically speaking the main differences between the methods are two: first, that photogravure is done on sheet-fed presses, whereas rotogravure uses exclusively roll- fed equipment: and second, that the image carriers of photogravure are flat metal plates (in the USA mostly), whereas those for rotogravure are etched metal cylinders. (In Europe, sheet- fed gravure is often done with etched cylinders rather than flat plates as image-carriers).

Text 3D

Задание. Прочтите текст, пользуясь полиграфическим словарём для понимания всех деталей описания.

Gravure Plates and Cylinders

Image carriers for gravure are either plates or cylinders. Plates are used for sheet- fed gravure, cylinders for rotogravure. Gravure plates consist of refined copper, have a highly polished surface, and are approximately 0.20 inch thick which makes it possible to wrap them around the plate cylinder of the press. Gravure plates need no particular preparation but should be free of surface defects. «If the plate has deep polishing marks or other defects, it should be polished with engraving coal, using kerosene, water or machine oil as a lubricant. To be effective, the polishing must be continued for a considerable time».
It should be mentioned that gravure plates are much less used than gravure cylinders. Gravure plates are the image carriers for jobs printed by sheet-fed gravure and they are also used for the proofing of material which will finally be printed with cylinders, a technique widely used in advertising production. Cylinders can be made of iron, steel, copper, and aluminium. The image forming metal of gravure cylinders is copper. As the body of most gravure cylinders consists of other metals, they must be covered with copper before they can be used as image carriers. Copper deposition is done electrochemically in a plating tank. The thickness of the copper deposit varies greatly with the circumference, length and construction of the cylinder. The larger the cylinder, the greater the deposit.

Photography and Retouching for Gravure

Essentially, photography for gravure does not differ from other kinds of graphic arts photography. The function of photography is the same in gravure as in all other printing processes: photography must provide intermediate records of the original images to be reproduced as required for the making of the printing-image carrier. But photography for gravure is more complex and can be executed in more variations than other branches of graphic arts photography.
This is so for two main reasons: one is the necessity of providing the bearing surface for the doctor- blade; the other is the fact that gravure is capable of reproducing continuous-tone images in three principally different ways.

Photomechanics for Gravure

Photomechanics for gravure often appear to the beginner to be complex and a little confusing. But if you keep firmly in mind what functions photomechanics have in the production of gravure image-carriers, you will not find the subject too difficult. You want to remember that gravure can obtain tonal reproductions either bу depositing ink films of varying thickness in different areas of the printed image or by varying the size of intaglio halftone dots, or, finally, by combining both techniques. Technically, this is achieved either by varying the depth of cells, or by varying the area of cells, or by varying both cell depth and area.
Close control of both depth and area of gravure cells is therefore essential for all gravure methods. Treating the image carrier with an etchant removes the required amounts of metal where it should be removed and thereby produces the gravure cells. Photomechanics provide the guide and control for the etching operation. Both the cell areas and their depth can be decisively influenced by the photomechanical image which is either formed on the surface of the image carrier or transferred to this surface after having been formed independently.
We distinguish two kinds of photomechanical images: stencils and continuous photomechanical layers of varying hardnesses and thicknesses. Stencils serve for the making of intaglio halftone image carriers, whereas images of varying hardness and thickness serve as resists in the etching of gravure cells of varying depth.
A firm grasp of the difference between these two photomechanical products is a prerequisite for the understanding of photomechanics for gravure. In photomechanical stencils, the light-sensitive coating is either completely hardened or not hardened at all, with no significant variations between these two extremes. During development of the photoprinted coating, all hardened areas remain on the supporting surface and all unhardened areas are washed away.
In continuous photomechanical layers of varying hardness and thickness, the light-sensitive coating is variably hardened throughout and changed in its solubility to various degrees in various areas. In some areas the coating is harder; in others it is less so. After development, such a coating still presents a continuous uninterrupted film, but it is a film of varying hardness and thickness. The hardness and thickness variations of this film depend on the amount of light to which a given area is exposed; areas exposed to more light are more hardened than areas exposed to less light. These variations in the physical properties of the resist influence the extend to which a given etchant can pass though it or permeate and etch the metal underneath.
The hardness and thickness of the developed photomechanical coating plays a decisive role in the etching of gravure image carriers with cells of varying depth. As a simplified generalizations, it can be said that the depth of cells is inversely related to the hardness and thickness of the photomechanical film. The photomechanical film serves as a resist during the etching of the intaglio image carrier. In gravure methods the resist protects various metal areas not uniformly but to varying degrees from the etchant, depending on its own hardness and thickness in any given area. The harder and thicker the resist, the more an area is protected from the action of the etchant; the more an area is protected, the less it will be etched. Conversely, the less an area is protected from the etchant the deeper will the cells be etched. The lands, bridges, or posts, as the metal areas between cells are called, must consequently be completely protected, whereas the deep shadows, which require the deepest etched calls, are least protected from the etchant.

Lesson 4

Грамматика: Цепочка определений.
Основной текст A: Paper: beneath the surface.

Цепочка определений

Если между артиклем (или другим определителем) и существительным, к которому он относится, стоит несколько существительных, они образуют цепочку определений, а существительное, к которому относится артикль, является по отношению к ним опорным. С него рекомендуется начинать перевод цепочки определений.
ink properties – свойства краски;
the car speed calculation problem – проблема вычисления скорости автомобиля.
Некоторые существительные – определения могут переводиться прилагательными, например:
bar – стержень, magnet – магнит;
bar magnet – стержневой магнит;
machine building industry – машиностроительная промышленность.
Однако подобный способ перевода не всегда возможен, часто такие определения приходится переводить существительными в косвенных падежах или предложными оборотами, при этом целесообразно пользоваться "правилом ряда". Порядок перевода обуславливается смысловыми связями между определениями и определяемым словом. Перевод следует начинать справа налево с последнего существительного, а существительные, стоящие перед ним в роли определения, нужно переводить на русский язык существительными в косвенных падежах (чаще родительном) или предложным оборотом. Например:
1 2 3 3 2 1
products price decrease – уменьшение цен на изделие.
Исходя из контекста, устанавливается связь между определениями,
например: 3 1-2
the electric equipment supply – питание электрооборудования.
В данном случае первое слово (electric) является определением второго (equipment).
Часто в подобную атрибутивную группу слов входят прилагательные, причастия, например:
hard – won freedom – с трудом завоеванная свободa;
stainless steel top cover – верхняя крышка из нержавеющей стали;
fixed contact – неподвижный контакт.

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык:
the control system; the measuring unit; semiconductor industry; measuring equipment; life time; effective life time; power consumption; first-class quality; room temperature; power supply line; normal operation conditions; rubber industry; control desk; print quality; average coating weight; high speed wet-on-wet sheet-fed rotary letterpress printing.

Упражнение 2. Проанализируйте и переведите следующие словосочета-ния на русский язык:
the traffic speed; the traffic speed increase; the railway bridge; the railway bridge reconstruction; the London underground; the London underground problem; the thermoelectric generator development; the energy accumulation process; the modern house ventilation facilities; the car speed calculation; the arch bridge construction site; the research program result; the Moscow region newspaper; the temperature limit determination; the household goods store; the steam engine invention; the deep sea current measuring device.
Упражнение 3. Переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:
internal combustion engine; George Washington Bridge bus terminal station; current events; cylinder wall; English Channel coast; supersonic vertical take-off bomber; fourteen bird and animal stories and plays; wooden house advantages; automatic flight control equipment; essential research programme; beginning college student; improved traffic flow; free school bus service; two-page story; two-bed hotel room, life-long hobby; class words and expressions; federal highway office; Dynamo versus Spartak football match; National Coal Research Institute; Electronic Research and Engineering Laboratory.
Vocabulary Notes

Задание. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. rags – тряпьё, ветошь
At first paper industry relied on the use of rags.
2. linen – льняная ткань
In the West it was linen that was used for papermaking until the mid-1800s.
3. cotton – хлопок
Cotton was introduced later for papermaking.
4. to treat – обрабатывать
Both linen and cotton were treated to turn them into papermaking fibre.
treatment – обработка
Linen and cotton were used for papermaking because of minimum treatment required.
5. fibre – волокно
Developments of non-cellulosic fibre from plastic are already on the market.
6. pulp – древесная масса; волокнистая масса, целлюлоза
Different techniques are used for making pulps of woods.
7. softwood – мягкая древесина
Spruce and pine are considered to be softwoods.
8. hardwood – твердая древесина
Hardwoods are reaching the limit of their present economic exploitation.
9. binder – связующее вещество; слой; покрытие бумаги
Lignin is a binder for forming a matrix of fibres.
10. damage – ущерб, повреждение
Damage to the fibre results in a weakened fibre.
11. to weaken – ослаблять
Weakening the fibre is not taken into account with mechanical pulp.
12. bark – кора
The tree is ground after bark removal.
13. to grind (ground, ground) – перемалывать
For making mechanical pulp the tree is ground to produce small chips of wood.
14. resin – смола
Small chips of wood contain all the lignin and resins after mechanical treatment.
15. formation (of paper) – направление волокна
Formation of paper means the distribution of fibres.
16. density – плотность
The thickness of the fibre cell wall is related to the sheet density.
17. bulk – объем; пухлость, рыхлость (бумаги)
The hardwood pulps improve bulk.
18. opacity – непрозрачность
Filters increase the opacity of the paper.
19. absorbency – впитываемость
The hardwood pulps give better absorbency to paper.
20. tear – сопротивление бумаги надрыву
Thicker walled fibres give high tear.
21. tensile – растяжимый; растяжение
Lower tensile is due to thicker walled fibres.
22. burst – сопротивление (бумаги) продавливанию; разрыв кромки
The thickness of the fibre cell affects burst of paper.
23. smoothness – гладкость
Smoothness, whiteness and gloss may affect print quality.
24. beating – размол бумажной массы
Sulphate pulps require more beating than sulphite pulps.
25. acid – кислота
Sulphite process is an acid system.
26. alkaline – щелочной
Sulphate process is an alkaline system.
27. to alter – изменять
The quality of pulp can be altered in sulphite process.
alteration – изменение
Alteration of the pulping conditions has no influence on the quality of pulp in the sulphate process.
28. shrinkage – усадка (бумажного листа)
Sulphate pulps produce lower shrinkage at the same strength.
29. bleaching – отбеливание; обесцвечивание
Special bleaching chemicals and equipment are used to produce good coloured mechanical pulps.
30. permanence – стойкость (краски)
Mechanical pulps have little permanence.
31. waste paper – макулатура, отходы бумаги
Waste paper is a good fibre source.
32. coated (body stock) paper – мелованная бумага
Better grades of waste paper can be used to make coated papers.
33. impregnation – пропитывание; пропитка
Impregnation of papers is often used to produce laminated surfaces.

Text 4A

Задание. Прочтите текст.

Paper: beneath the surface
From the invention of papermaking in China until the mid-1800s the industry relied on the use of rags. The exact composition of these rags depended on the origin of rag, but in the West it was mainly linen before the introduction of cotton. Their use was dictated by the basic requirement of minimum treatment to turn them into papermaking fibre. The slowness to develop alternative plant fibre sources was due to the lack of chemical technology to produce chemicals and materials resistant to chemical attack.
The second major stage in fibre usage for papermaking began in the 1860s with the discovery of pulping techniques for straws, esparto and softwoods, such as spruce and pine, first by the soda process, then by the sulphite process, and finally by the sulphate process. At the moment it is wood that supplies the vast majority of papermaking fibre but the variety and quality of the pulps available to the papermaker have greatly increased - high white hardwood and softwood pulps, high-yield semi-chemicals and mechanicals. Each pulp has its own particular property and it is the skill of the papermaker which gives the customer such a wide range of papers with differing characteristics.
The third stage in fibre development, if not with us now, is almost upon us. Both softwood and hardwoods are reaching the limit of their present economic exploitation, hence new methods of forestry, and more rapid growing species giving a better return on capital and land usage and improved pulping efficiencies are already under active research and development. Developments of non - cellulosic fibre from plastics, or even plastic papers are already on the market.
All the cellulosic fibres used in papermaking have been part of a plant and the final characteristic of a fibre in a sheet of paper is the product of its construction and subsequent separation, purification and papermaking history. It is important, therefore, to have a basic understanding of fibre structure to appreciate the final influence that the fibre has on the paper surface. Fibre structure and behaviour is called fibre morphology.
In the simplest form a fibre, or elongated plant cell, consists of a series of concentric tubes, each tube or layer having its own structure and function. The outer layer contains the least cellulose and most lignin, whereas the innermost layers contain the bulk of the cellulose. Each fibre in turn is bonded to its neighbour by lignin, or other binder, to form a matrix of fibres. The pulping operation leading to the chemical wood pulps must first remove this lignin and the lignin in the cellulose fibre with the least damage to the fibre structure. Damage to the cellulose fibre results in a weakened fibre. In the case of ground-wood, or mechanical pulp, such considerations do not apply because after bark removal the tree is ground to produce small chips of wood still containing all the lignin and resins.
The ratio of the length of the fibre to its diameter and the thickness of its cell wall are of great importance. The difference between softwood and hardwood fibres is shown by such considerations. Softwood fibres average 2 to 5 mm in length and 30 to 40 microns in width, while hardwood fibres average 1.5 mm in length and 10 to 30 microns in width. The hardwood fibres are also lighter than the softwoods. Such factors indicate that one gramme of a bleached softwood pulp contains about ten million fibres while a similar bleached hardwood contains twenty-five million. This difference in the number of fibres in a given weight is sufficient to alter sheet characteristics, particularly the evenness of formation and smoothness.
The thickness of the fibre cell wall and the ease with which it can collapse and bond with other fibres is related to the sheet density. Thicker walled fibres give high bulk, opacity, porosity, absorbency, tear, but lower tensile and burst, with thin-walled fibres giving dense, well-bonded sheets.
The hardwood pulps not only improve formation but improve bulk, smoothness, opacity, absorbency, require less beating and are cheaper than the softwood pulps. One of the most important fibres in this group is eucalypt, a fast-growing species which gives a fibre of almost constant properties. It is now found in a large number of printing papers since its properties resemble those of esparto-the traditional fibre found in printing papers. The ever-rising cost of esparto, compared with the more stable cost of eucalypt, has forced papermakers to use eucalypt fibre.
There are four different chemical pulping processes commonly used for treating plant fibres and these can reduce or reinforce the differences due to pulp-wood species.
The two main pulping processes are sulphite - an acid system and sulphate (or kraft) - an alkaline system. As a rule the quality of pulp can be altered in the sulphite process by alteration of the pulping conditions such as temperature, pressures and concentration of cooking chemicals, but this is not easy for the sulphate process where it is the wood species which has the major influence on quality.
Sulphate pulps, when compared with sulphite pulps, tend to have a higher tear, produce lower shrinkage at the same strength, have higher bulk, opacity, absorbency but require more beating to give a certain level of drainage, thus they generally allow the papermaker to run his paper machine faster at any given condition.
The mechanical or groundwood pulp process is simple and consists of grinding a log, from which the bark has been removed, in the presence of water against a grindstone to produce a wood flour or a suspension of small wood chips. Traditionally only softwood species were used but now hardwood species are used. The quality of the pulp depends on the fineness of grind and the design of the grinding equipment. Normal chlorine bleaching techniques employed for chemical wood pulps cannot be used and special bleaching chemicals and equipment are required to give good coloured mechanical pulps; no high white mechanical pulps are made.
Mechanical pulps are cheap, low-coloured, have poor strength, little permanence, discolour in sunlight, have good dimensional stability but are cheap and are used as a filler pulp. They are used in newsprint, cheap mechanical printings and cheap banks.
With the current emphasis on pollution and the recovery of wastes, it is timely to consider the importance of waste paper as a fibre source. The use of waste paper is already well established in the UK for board making, but a higher recovery of waste could enable a major economic contribution to be made to a better sorting of waste. In this way better grades could be re-cycled after de-inking to make cheap printings, newsprint and the coated body stock papers as happens in Austria and certain other European countries where de-inking is more firmly established than in Britain.
In a discussion on papermaking's future the word “plastics” is bound to occur. The word means one of four processes: the use of synthetic fibres, the impregnation of fibre material with polymer, plastics paper or films, or grafting.
Papermakers already use rayon and nylon for making speciality papers such as filters, so their development for other uses is possible if the economics are right. The impregnation of papers is often used to produce such products as the inner soles of shoes, imitation leather and laminated surfaces.
Japan, fearing a shortage of wood pulp, developed the use of plastics papers - some of which are only plastics films - when the price of oil products fell and the price of wood products was rising. However, oil is rapidly rising in price and subject to political discrimination, which makes such a source of raw material unattractive to industrialists.
Упражнение 4. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:
type matter; land transport; magazine paper; gravure printing quality; excessive ink tack; press speed; plant fibre sources; hardwood pulp; softwood pulp; fibre structure; surface sizing; waste paper; coated body stock papers; plastics paper; speciality papers; imitation leather; wood pulp; plastics films; oil resistance; tear resistance; improved strength properties; hand correction; full-page newspaper plates; reproduction processes; standard thickness gauge; light source; water rate bill; halftone screen formation; sidewall protection; image areas; bath replenishment; full range screen negatives; powder additive; a modified copper powderless etch chemistry.
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения согласно данным моделям.
it is necessary – необходимо, нужно
it is possible – можно, возможно
it is evident – очевидно, ясно
it is clear – ясно, понятно
it is important – важно, необходимо
1. It is important to have a basic understanding of fibre structure to appreciate the final influence that the fibre has on the paper surface.
2. It is evident that the most important paper properties that influence printability are: smoothness, absorption, surface strength, optical properties, moisture content and dimensional stability.
3. It is possible to use waste paper as a fibre source.
4. It is necessary to differ web papers and paper for sheet-fed printing.
5. It is clear that paper is a product of a complex manufacturing process.
6. It is very difficult to explain such terms as "printability" and "runnability" of paper.
7. It is necessary to remember that the two sides of uncoated papers have different surface characteristics.
8. It is quite clear that the profession of an engineer is very difficult but interesting.
9. It is important to use different kinds of paper for different printing presses and processes.
10. It is evident that if paper with a coloured coating is required, colour pigments are used in the coating mixture.

Упражнение 6. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на усилительную конструкцию.
1. It is the lack of chemical technology that explains the slowness of the development of alternative plant fibre sources.
2. It is wood that supplies the vast majority of papermaking fibre.
3. It is the skill of the papermaker which gives the customer such a wide range of paper with different characteristics.
4. It is the wood species which has the major influence on quality for the sulphate process.
5. It is because of the shortage of wood pulp that plastics papers were developed.
6. It is fillers that increase the opacity of the paper.
7. It is cellulose fibres alone that readily soak water and other liquids.
8. It is only better grades of paper that are made of rags.
9. It is tensile strength, flatness and ink receptivity that influence runnability and printability of papers.
10. It is the basic size and the basic weight of paper that are essential when paper is ordered by Print Shop.

Text 4 В

Задание 1. Прочтите текст, стараясь понять основное содержание.
(Этот текст надо прочесть за 5 минут).

There are many kinds and grades of paper, but most of them come under the five general classes such as: newsprint, book papers, writing papers covers and cardboards.
While papermaking is a separate industry, its product is so essential to printing that in order to obtain the best results in a job, a printer must have a thorough knowledge of the materials and processes used in the production of paper. A printed product consists in reality of two things: a printed impression and the paper upon which the form is printed. Both are equally important. A careful selection of paper is required for each job in order that the finished product may be harmonious and suited to its particular purpose.
Possibly no other substance is used so extensively as paper. That indispensable medium bears and preserves the printed word.
The most important part of paper is the fibre which forms the body and gives it strength. The fibre is always a vegetable product. Almost any kind of vegetable fibre can be used in paper-making, but those fibres which are strongest and most plentiful are commonly used.
Generally speaking, printing papers may be classified into two main groups: wood-pulp papers and rag papers. Many papers are also formed by a combination of these two basic fibres and are known as rag content papers.
Cheap printing papers such as newsprint, most book papers, cardboards and cheaper grades of writing papers are made from wood pulp. Pulp is produced by two methods: the mechanical process and the sulphite process.
In the mechanical process the logs are ground into fine sawdust, while in the sulphite process the wood is cut into small chips, and then the fibres are separated by cooking them in large kettles known as digesters. The latter process is used more extensively because of the superior quality of the pulp for printing and writing purposes.
Notes:
1. cardboard – картон
2. digester – котел
3. log – бревно
4. preserve – сохранять
5. sawdust – опилки
6. vegetable – растительный
Задание 2. Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию текста.
1. The most important part of paper is:
a) sizing; b) the fibre; c) sulphite.
2. Cheap printing papers are made of:
a) wood pulp; b) rags; c) chemicals.
3. Pulp is produced by:
a) one process; b) two ргоcessеs; c) by three processes.
4. Sulphite process is used more extensively because of
a) its simplicity; b) its cheapness; c) the superior quality of the pulp for printing and writing purposes.
Задание 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. What forms the body and gives strength to paper?
2. By what method is pulp produced?
3. What kinds of printing paper are made of wood pulp?
4. How is pulp produced in the mechanical process?
5. Why is the sulphite process used more extensively?
6. How are the fibres separated in this process?
Задание 4. Переведите на английский язык.
1. Волокно является основной частью бумаги.
2. Бумага изготавливается из тряпья и дерева.
3. Любой вид растительного волокна может быть использован в производстве бумаги.
4. Древесную массу получают либо механическим, либо сульфитным процесс-сами.
5. Сульфитный процесс даёт бумагу высокого качества.
6. Печатник должен знать, как изготавливается бумага.
7. Бумага сохраняет бумажное слово.

Text 4 С

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.
Printability of paper cannot be measured by one property alone. The individual properties that together constitute printability will depend upon the process used, the quality, and the rate of production required.
Nevertheless, almost all printing processes put ink on to paper under pressure. Therefore there must be some underlying principles that are common to all processes. The most important of them is the penetration of inks into paper. Fundamental work on printability being carried out at various printing research associations has been directed to a study of this property.
The problem of printability is to find the necessary paper requirements to enable a particular type of job of the required quality to be printed by a particular process at an economic speed. Because of demands (требования) made for certain properties in the paper by reason (причина) of its end usage it is often the case that it is not ideal from the point of view (точка зрения) of printing. It is then necessary to find the conditions, the process and the ink that enable the best possible result to be obtained from the paper. When papers are to be compared (сравнивать) for suitability (пригодность) for particular work, it is usually possible by means of testing to predict (предсказать) whether specific defects are likely to occur. Printability research, however, is a comparatively recent science and has not yet reached the stage where it would be possible to state (утверждать) definitely that one paper will give a better print on all counts than another. One of the difficulties at the present time is that there is no established method of assessing (определение) the factors that together make up print quality.

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту 4С.
1. What does printability depend upon?
2. What is the most important principle of all printing processes?
3. How can the best possible result be obtained from the paper?
4. What is the problem of printability?
5. Is printability research a new or an old science?
6. What is one of the difficulties at the present time?
Задание 3. Озаглавьте текст.
Text 4D
Задание 1. Прочтите текст.
Paper Properties
There are few papers which are suitable for all processes and most paper mills therefore depart from standard grades and develop papers specifically for individual processes.
Certain paper properties affect all printing processes since they concern runnability and the visual impact of the finished work. Most printers, whether dealing with sheets or reels, demand good runnability first, while their customers look for quality of reproduction. In many cases it is simple for a paper mill to satisfy one or the other but the difficulty comes in meeting both requirements simultaneously. This is due to the fact that nearly all desirable printing properties of paper conflict with each other. By altering one property, one or more other properties are also changed. Thus to improve the printing quality of newsprint by increasing the finish, also compresses the sheet and renders it less porous to the black news ink, increasing second impression set-off, ink piling on turner bars and smeared copies. Similarly, to improve the gravure printing quality of a magazine paper by increasing its moisture content to make super - calendering more effective, sometimes leads to difficulties of level on reels, with subsequent bad runnability on the rotogravure press.
Consistency of quality is most important and a printer expects this of every sheet or reel of a delivery, since variations within sheets, reams or reels cause far more trouble than a paper which, though it may be slightly below standard is a similar quality throughout the order.
Colour and whiteness of paper are of prime importance to the paper buyer, the printer and the inkmaker, since they affect the appearance of the finished job.
Colour, unfortunately, is so much a matter of individual preference that there is no such thing as the "best" paper in this respect. What is important is that the inks, plates, and paper combine to produce the most satisfactory result. Obviously, the whiter the paper, the better the printing result.
Opacity is also of great importance, since paper of low opacity detracts from the appearance of the print in several ways. First, the printing on the reverse side of a sheet shows through; secondly the effect of ink penetration is greater than on a more opaque paper and thirdly it reduces the apparent printing contrast, giving the impression of low print density.
Papermakers have many methods of improving opacity but these usually increase costs, lower the brightness, or change other desirable properties of a paper.
Flatness of a sheeted paper is important in all printing processes, particularly in litho and gravure due to the fact that the paper is in contact with the printing nip over its entire width. In these circumstances, any surplus paper in the form of a wave or cockle must form into a crease or cause misregister. Lack of flatness can appear in several ways, i.e. tight-edges, wavy, cockled, or curled sheets and except for the latter two, the reasons may not be the same on all occasions, and the cause may be impossible to ascertain.
Wavy and tight edges are the most common and fully understood flatness defects since paper can pick up or release moisture according to the relative humidity of its surroundings with corresponding expansion or contraction. Only the fibrous portion of the paper is thus affected, so it follows that heavily loaded imitation art papers will change less than those without loading.
If paper is brought into а warm pressroom from a cold atmosphere and immediately unwrapped, moisture from the warm pressroom air will condense on the exposed edges of the stack causing swelling of the fibres and wavy edges. Stacks should therefore be left wrapped to come to equilibrium with the pressroom temperature. Unwrapped sheeted paper with a moisture content higher than that at which it would be in equilibrium with the relative humidity of the pressroom will release moisture from exposed edges and leave the stacks with surplus paper in the centure (a defect known as tight edges).
From the above, it will be seen that paper should not only be allowed to stand until in equilibrium with temperature, but should be left unwrapped until just before printing. Between workings, covering the stacks with polythene or other waterproof material, keeps dimensional change to a minimum, but these measures only apply to unconditioned pressrooms.
Various instruments are available for checking the condition of paper before printing and these are discussed later.
Paper which is not flat causes difficulty in feeding and delivery and introduces the troubles of creasing and misregister. Paper expands or contracts considerably more in the cross than in the machine direction due to the method of manufacture and the properties of individual fibres. This is why litho printers and high quality letterpress colour printers, normally require long grain paper which implies that the machine direction of the paper is parallel to the axis of the printing cylinder. Although very limited in the amount of change he can mаkе, the printer can often compensate for stretch or shrinkage of paper when it occurs round the cylinder by altering the circumference of cylinders with packing.
Formation. - Another property affecting all printing processes is formation. This term means the distribution of fibres within the sheet as seen when holding the paper up to the light. Thus, a good formation is one that appears even and clear, while a bad formation exhibits point-to-point variations in translucency due to fibres coagulating in clumps, instead of being evenly distributed.
It affects printing since variation in fibre density results in uneven ink vehicle absorption. In cases of bad formation, the effect shows particularly in solids and to a lesser extent in the mid-tones of half-tone prints.
Paper gloss frequently has a considerable influence on the appearance of printing and with transparent inks the reflection from a paper with a high gloss noticeably enhances the printing result.
Having dealt with paper properties which concern all printing processes, it is now necessary to consider those relating to specific ones. Letterpress printing is influenced by numerous paper properties apart from those mentioned above. Of these, smoothness is very important, since lack of it results in incomplete ink transfer. Lack of smoothness may be tolerated if the paper has sufficient compressibility enabling it to become smooth under printing pressure.
Pick Resistance. - There are three types of pick, all of which are troublesome to printers, and these are: coating pick occuring within the coating layer itself, due to insufficient and/or unsuitable binder (adhesive); coating pick occuring at the interface between the coating layer and the base paper due to poor bonding of the two; and body pick occuring within the substrate of the base paper due to its physical weakness. Picking of any kind can be due to factors other than weakness of the paper, for example, excessive ink tack and printing pressure. In letterpress printing the demands on paper are less critical in this respect than for offset lithography. Nevertheless, with increasing press speeds the greater use of colour and wet-on-wet printing, severe demands are made on the pick strength of paper.
The absorptive properties of paper for letterpress printing influence numerous print characteristics.
Liquid is absorbed into paper by capillary attraction into the interfibre spaces. It follows, therefore, that the absorptive properties of paper are altered most by supercalendering. But the type of fibre, loading, surface treatment (Pigmented or otherwise) and the amount of beating all have significant effects on absorption. These factors are particularly important in newspaper and similar types of printing which rely entirely on the high absorption of the paper for "drying".
Surface treating paper at the size press, being film forming, also lowers its absorptive capacity, as does roll-coating which relies on heavy supercalendering to obtain the requisite smoothness. Both types of treatment resulted in problems of ink-setting until modified inks were developed.
High speed wet-on-wet sheet-fed rotary letterpress printing has also caused problems for both paper- making and ink manufacture. The absorptive properties of coated papers which were satisfactory on slower presses were insufficient in some cases causing set-off and sticking in the delivery stacks.
A paper which is too absorbent can cause chalking or powdering by the vehicle of the ink being absorbed into paper too rapidly leaving pigment on the surface with insufficient binding medium.
It is well known that coating paper with a layer of pigment and binder is one of the most effective ways of improving its surface for letterpress printing end generally speaking, printing qualities improve as coating weight increases. Thus, the best art papers have up to 30 g.s.m. of coating on each side while the lowest weight applied to cheaper papers may be as little as 5 g.s.m. on each side. An average coating weight for good results is about 16 g.s.m. per side. Coating, being principally china clay or other finely ground pigment accepts ink more readily than a fibrous surface and results in higher print density and when supercalendered gives higher print gloss. Type of body paper, method of coating and the formation itself all have a considerable bearing on the printing quality.
Web-fed paper troubles. - Apart from any of the above properties which affect either sheet-fed or rotary letterpress printing, there are those which can cause trouble in web fed work only. The common faults are those or piping, stretched edges, generally bad level and uneven tension through the reel. It is a mistake view that web breaks are caused by weak paper, that is, paper of low tensile or other strength properties. The "pull" on a reeler in the paper mill is higher than on any printing machine and paper which continuously breaks on a reeler could not be sent out. Breaks are almost invariably caused by faults in paper, for example, edge tears, incorrect printing press tension, out-of-line reel stands or too much printing pressure.
Overdry paper can cause breaks due to its rather brittle nature but, more serious, dry paper is prone to the generation of static electricity which often causes troubles on newspaper and magazine presses, especially at the folder. Static troubles can also be a dry pressroom atmosphere.

Задание 2. Сделайте доклады в соответствии с прочитанным текстом:

1. Важнейшие свойства бумаги.
2. Свойства бумаги, оказывающие влияние на высокую печать.
3. Способы улучшения поверхности бумаги для высокой печати.
4. Преодоление трудностей, связанных с бумагой, при рулонной подаче.
Lesson 5

Грамматика: Словообразование.

Основной текст A: General Characteristics of Inks.
Словообразование
В английском языке имеется несколько типов словообразования: аффиксация, т.е. прибавление к корню суффикса или префикса; конверсия и словосложение.

Основные префиксы и их значение

Префикс
К какой части речи добавляется

Основное значение
Примеры
Перевод
anti-
существительные прилагательные
анти- противо-
antisocial
антиобществен-ный
со-
существительные глаголы
общность действия
cooperate coauthor
сотрудничать соавтор
counter
существительные
контр- противо-
countershaft
контрпривод
de-
глаголы, существительные
де-
deformation
деформация
dis-
глаголы, существительные, прилагательные
paз-/pac-/
дез-/ обез-
disorganize
дезорганизовать
en-(em)
существительные прилагательные
изменяет часть речи
encourage
ободрить
extra-
прилагательные
экстра- сверх-
ехtraordinary
экстраординар-ный
in-(im-)
il-,ir-
прилагательные
не-
illogical invisible
нелогичный, невидимый
inter-
глаголы, прилагательные
между- взаимо-
interaction
взаимодействие
mis-
глаголы, существительные
отрицательное значение
misunder-stand
неправильно понять
non-
существительные прилагательные
не-
noninterfe-rence
невмешательство

out-

глаголы

пере-, превосходить что-либо

outbalance

перевешивать, превосходить
over-
глаголы, прилагательные
пере-, сверх-,
чрезмерно
overdo
перестараться

post-

глаголы, прилагательные, существительные

после

post-acceleration

послеускорение

pre-
глаголы, прилагательные, существительные
до-, перед раньше
prehistoric
доисторический

re-
глаголы
снова, вновь

rewrite

переписывать

sub-

глаголы, существительные, прилагательные
суб-, под-, ниже
subtropical
субтропический, подсознательный
super-
глаголы, прилагательные, существительные
пере-,
сверх-

superheat

перегрев

trans-
глаголы, прилагательные
транс-, пере-
transplant
пересадить

ultra-
существительные, прилагательные
превос-ходящее обычное, ультра
ultrasonic

ультразвук, ультрафиолето-вый
un-
глаголы, существительные, прилагательные
рас-/раз/, не-, без-/ бес/
uncoupling unkind
расцепка, недобрый

under-

глаголы, прилагательные
недо, ниже, нормы
undervalue
недооценивать

Основные суффиксы существительных
Суффикс
К какой части речи добавляется

Основное значение

Примеры
Перевод
- agе
глаголы, прилагательные, существительные
действие, состояние

shortage

нехватка

- al
глаголы
действие

removal
удаление
-ance (ence)
глаголы, прилагательные
действие, состояние
silence
молчание
-ant
(-ent)
глаголы

принадлежность к профессии

assistant
ассистент

- dom

существительные, прилагательные
состояние, качество
freedom

свобода

-еr (-or)
глаголы

действующее лицо или механизм, производящий действие
reader, visitor

читатель, посетитель

-еr
существительные
имя существительное, обозначающее жителей
Londoner
лондонец
-hood

существительные
состояние
childhood
детство
-ian
существительные
профессия
technician

техник
-ics
существительные
название
physics
физика
-ing
глаголы
процесс, действие, состояние
calendering
каландрирова-ние
-ion (tion -ation)
глаголы
процесс, название действия, состояние
revolution formation
революция, формирование
-ism

существительные прилагательные
учение, теория, направление, качество
marxism modernism heroism
марксизм, модернизм, героизм
-ist
существительные
имя существительное, обозначающее последователей учения
communist darvinist
коммунист дарвинист
-ty
прилагательные
качество или состояние
legality
легальность
- ment
глаголы
результат действия
settlement equipment
поселение оборудование
- ness
прилагательные
качество или состояние
softness
мягкость
-ship
существительные
состояние
comradship
товарищество

Основные суффиксы прилагательных

-able
глаголы

способный что-либо делать
countable
поддающийся счёту
-al
существительные
наличие качества
electrical
электрический
-ant,-ent
глаголы

наличие качества, свойства
different resistant
различный сопротивляющийся
-агу

существительные
наличие качества, свойства
revolutionагу
революционный
-ful
существительные
наличие качества
forgetful
забывчивый

-ish
существительные
наличие признака в слабой степени
childish
детский

-ive
глаголы
наличие качества, свойства
creative
созидательный

-less
существительные
отсутствие качества
seamless
бесшовный
-ous
существительные
наличие качества, свойства
famous
известный

Основные суффиксы наречий

- ly
существительные
изменяет часть речи
happily
счастливо

- ward

существительные, наречия
направление
backward
назад

Основные суффиксы глаголов

- ate
существительные прилагательные

activate
активизировать
-en
существительные прилагательные

harden
закаливать
- fy
прилагательные существительные

intensify
усиливать
- ize
прилагательные существительные

summarize
суммировать

Упражнение 1. Образуйте с помощью суффикса -еr (-or) существительные от данных глаголов; переведите их на русский язык:
sail, act, write, read, visit, speak, sleep, found, lead, direct.
Упражнение 2. Образуйте при помощи суффиксов -er, -or, или -ist существительные от нижеприведённых слов:
burn – гореть
receive – получать
compose – сочинять музыку
drive – вести машину
regulate – регулировать
accumulate – аккумулировать
special – специальный
social – социальный.
Упражнение 3. Образуйте с помощью суффикса -ian существительные от данных слов, переведите их на русский язык. Обратите внимание на изменения в произношении:
technic, mathematics, statistics, politics, music.
Упражнение 4. С помощью суффикса -ment образуйте существительные от следующих глаголов:
develop, achieve, equip, move, arrange, treat, state.
Упражнение 5. Переведите следующие слова, определите, к какой части речи они относятся. Обратите внимание на суффиксы:
difference – different
violence – violent
magnificence – magnificent
excellence – excellent
resistance – resistant
importance – important.
Упражнение 6. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов -full и -less, переведите их на русский язык:
beauty, thank, hope, doubt /сомнение/, саге /забота/, aim /цель/, use, shape /форма/.
Упражнение 7. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффиксов -able, -ible, переведите их на русский язык:
extend, change, convert, resist, prevent, break, compare, desire.
Упражнение 8. Найдите суффикс в данных ниже словах. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся. Переведите их на русский язык:
British, English, boyish, Scottish, foolish, reddish, understandable, heartless, pitiless, limitless, classless, successful.
Упражнение 9. Образуйте прилагательные с помощью суффикса – al(ial):
experiment, profession, form, nation, function, fundemental, office, classic, music, industry.

Упражнение 10. Переведите следующие слова на русский язык, обращая внимание на значения префикса и корня:
untrue, decompose, demilitarization, discover, antibody, noninductivity, non-resistance, invariable, antiparticle, disappearance, disjoin, rearrangement, reconstruction, prewar, prefabricate, postwar, extraterritorial, ultramodern.

Vocabulary Notes
Задание. Переведите следующие предложения.
1. oil – масло
Petrolium oils and rosin oils are non – drying oils.
2. varnish – лак
Varnish viscosity can be adjusted by using different quantities of thinners.
3. drier – сушильное устройство, сиккатив
Metallic additives serve as oxidation catalysts and are commonly called driers or siccatives.
4. viscosity – вязкость
Letterpress inks have moderate viscosity.
5. tack – липкость
Tack is the force required to split an ink film between two surfaces.
6. flow – текучесть
Resistance to flow or viscosity refers to the consistency of inks.
7. to distribute – распределять: растирать, раскатывать (краску)
Inks must distribute evenly on the press and transfer properly from the type form to paper.
8. to handle – транспортировать (листы)
The printed sheets must be handled within a reasonable time.
9. to smudge – мазать, пачкать
Fresh printed sheets can be easily smudged.
10. resistance – устойчивость
Resistance of ink to acids, sunlight, alkalies may be required.
11. solvent – растворитель
Years ago the number and amount of solvents consumed by the printing ink industry was practically insignificant.
12. formulation (of inks) – рецептура (печатных красок)
Many properties of inks are obtained through formulation and selection of ingredients.
13. cut – клише
Typographic inks are used to print from ordinary type, line and halftone cuts.
14. vehicle – растворитель, связующее (вещество)
Varnishes and oils form the vehicles.
15. to disperse – рассеивать, распылять
Pigments are well dispersed in the ink vehicle.
16. resin – смола
Synthetic resins are dispersed in drying oils.
17. yield value – величина текучести (краски)
Planographic inks have higher yield values than typographic inks.
18. to impregnate – пропитывать; насыщать
A smooth limestone slab was impregnated with a gum arabic solution.
19. to adhere – прилипать
Part of the liquid will adhere to the solid when the two are separated.
20. moist – влажный
Non-printing areas of the plate are kept moist to repel ink in planograhic printing.
21. to possess – иметь
Hand printing of fine engravings requires an ink which possesses a buttery consistency.
22. to wipe off – стирать
The excess ink is wiped off the face of the plate.
23. to exhibit – показывать
The inks must exhibit no tendency of dissolving in water.
24. to bleed – растекаться (о краске)
The property of ink bleeding is not desirable in intaglio ink.
25. evaporation – испарение
Drying by evaporation depends on the ability of solvents to evaporate readily from the ink film.
26. thin – жидкий
Intaglio inks must be very thin.
27. to suspend – взвешивать
Pigments are suspended in a highly fluid vehicle.
28. fluid – текучий
Drying means the change from the fluid to the solid state.

Text 5A

Задание 1. Прочтите текст.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF INKS
Printing ink is essentially an intimate mixture of pigments, oils, varnishes, driers, and, frequently, waxy or greasy compounds. The ink must possess suitable physical characteristics such as viscosity, flow and tack to adapt it to the particular type of printing press and stock on which it is to be used. Each type of press and each kind of grade of stock requires an ink of different physical characteristics to insure that it will distribute properly and transfer correctly from the type to the paper. It must print sharply and give legible prints of the desired color. The ink must dry sufficiently fast to enable the printed sheets to be handled within a reasonable time without offsetting or smudging. Besides these general properties, it is usually important that the ink print a sufficient number of impressions. Many other properties such as resistance to acids, alkalies, paraffin, sunlight and solvents, may be required and are obtained through formulation and selection of ingredients.
Printing inks are divided into three main classes, typographic, planographic and intaglio; corresponding to the three major divisions of printing. Each of these three different classes of inks must be essentially different in character and properties from the other two. Typographic inks are used to print from raised, or relief, surfaces such as ordinary type, line and halftone cuts. These inks consist of soft pigments ground in a varnish or vehicle composed essentially of heat-bodied linseed oil, or, more recently, of synthetic resins dispersed in drying oils. Since the paper, or other drying surface on which they are printed is generally more or less non-absorbent, they must dry mainly by oxidation of the vehicle. They possess considerable "tack," i.e., stickiness and pull, so that they will distribute evenly on the press and transfer properly from type to paper.
Planographic inks are used to print from plane surfaces, as in the lithographic and offset processes. These inks are generally considerably heavier than typographic inks, that is, they possess considerable tack. In other words, they are more viscous and have higher yield values than typographic inks. The pigments and vehicles used in these inks must not be affected by water, since this process depends upon the fact that grease (in this case planographic ink) and water are mutually repellent. In the old, basic lithographic process, a design was drawn with a greasy crayon on a smooth limestone slab, and the whole surface of the slab was then impregnated with a gum arabic solution. After subsequent drying, it was found that lithographic ink would adhere to the design, but not to the remainder of the slab, providing it was kept moist. In the most modern version of the planographic process, grained metal plates take the place of the cumbersome limestone slabs, and the greasy images, or designs, are formed on the plates by photographic means.
Intaglio inks, originally called steel or copper plate inks, are used to print from engraved, or depressed, surfaces. The character of the ink depends upon the kind of plate, the type of press being used and the speed of operation; thus hand printing of fine engravings requires an ink which will dry by oxidation, and which possesses buttery consistency. At the same time, it must be quite greaseless so that the excess ink may be wiped off the face of the plate without disturbing the ink in the lines, and so the ink will lift readily from the lines of the engravings when the paper is pressed against it. Since the paper used in this class of printing is generally dampened before use, the inks also must exhibit no tendency to bleed, or dissolve, in water. At the other extreme are intaglio inks, which are used to print from engraved copper rolls at high speed. Here the drying is mainly by absorption and evaporation and the inks must be very thin and consist of low gravity pigments suspended thoroughly in a highly fluid vehicle which contains little, or no, drying oil.

Упражнение 11. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту 5А.

1. What is the formulation of printing ink?
2. What physical characteristics must ink possess?
3. Why must ink dry fast?
4. What other properties of ink may be required?
5. What classes are printing inks divided into?
6. What do typographic inks consist of?
7. Are water and grease mutually repellent?
8. Can you describe the old lithographic process?
9. For what purpose are intaglio inks used?
10. What does the character of intaglio ink depend upon?

Упражнение 12. Переведите предложения, содержащие парные союзы.

1. Either relief or gravure image carriers can be used on this rotary press.
2. You may use either hand composition or photographic methods for this unusual work.
3. The engineer technologists said that neither ink nor paper were suitable for this method of printing.
4. The inks for platen press must be neither too sticky nor too fluid.
5. You can see both sheet and web feeders in this pressroom.
6. Both rotary and offset presses can be equipped with either sheet or "web" feeders.
7. Lithographic inks have neither raised nor recessed image areas.
8. Both water and different solutions are used for damping.

Упражнение 13. Переведите следующие словосочетания:

brass alloy; opaque liquid retouching medium; register bar; halftone areas; insert wrong-reading halftone positives; bi-layer masking film; inset positive halftone foil; background positive halftone; colour separation technique; four-colour halftone plate; colour correction; initial colour-corrected screen separations; punch register system; high fidelity duplicate transparencies; photopolymer plate materials; photo electronic control techniques; colour reproduction unit; accurate end product prediction; optimum reproduction equipment; graphic communications industries; graphic arts show.

Упражнение 14. Переведите следующие производные слова:

impression, viscosity, tendency, solution, emulsification, adhesion, successfully, consistency, carrier, undesirable, sticky, importance, portion, naturally, various, durability, expensive, practically, immediately, greasy, receptive, condition, planographic, equipment, extremely, production, suitable, additive, penetration, resistance, hydrophilic, arrangement, repellent, rapidly, fatty, replace, requirement, thickness, oxidation, absorption, polymerize, evaporate, contribution, absorbent, conventional, initiator, pollution, elimination, embrittlement, considerable, uncoated, minimize, insoluble, desensitized, dissolve, emulsify, drier, inability, roller, protective.
Text 5B

Задание 1. Прочтите текст, стараясь понять основное содержание.
(Этот текст надо прочесть за 6 минут).

Printing Ink
Ink was first developed in China about 2,500 to 3,000 B.C. The early inks are thought to have been made by mixing lampblack with oil and gum. Different kinds of paper, different printing surfaces and printing presses require different kinds of ink. Printing inks are mainly composed by colour pigments and varnish ground together in proper relation to one another to suit the various works for which they are intended. The pigments furnish the colour and the varnish the binder which holds the colour to the paper. Pigments for various colours are obtained from various sources. The pigment in black ink is lampblack produced by burning fats or oils in such a manner аs to sесure a heavy deposit of soot or carbon.
There are water-colour and oil-base inks. The water or oil, in which the pigment is carried, is called vehicle. The most common vehicles are linseed oil and rosin oil. The former is used for better grades of ink. It has the property of absorbing oxygen, and, when spread out in a thin film, it forms a very smooth, hard coating which after drying a few hours, will not rub off. The rosin varnishes, which do not dry so rapidly, are used in cheaper grades of ink. They are intended for printing on softer papers which will easily absorb the ink. There are many kinds, or classes of printing inks differing from each other in composition depending on the work to be printed. For example, a cheap grade news ink is used for printing on rough, uncoated paper such as newsprint. It has no drying properties and dries only by absorption into the paper and therefore is not suitable for better classes of printing.
Printing inks are available in many colours. If you need a lighter tint than you have, you can add some white into the ink. A thick piece of glass with a white piece of paper under it makes a good mixing surface for ink. To check the mixed colour one should spread a thin layer of the mixed ink on a piece of printed paper to be used.

Задание 2. Выберите утверждение, соответствующее содержанию
текста.

1. Linseed oil is used:
a) for bad grades of ink;
b) for better grades of ink;
c) for all kinds of ink.
2. The rosin varnishes are intended
a) for printing on softer papers;
b) for printing on coated papers;
c) for expensive grades of ink.
3. The pigment in black ink is:
a) a special plant;
b) varnish;
c) burnt fats or oils.
4.
a) Newsprint is an expensive grade of paper;
b) newsprint is a coated paper;
c) newsprint is a rough, uncoated paper.
Задание 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. Where and when was ink first developed?
2. Why are different types of ink required?
3. What are printing inks mainly composed of?
4. How is lampblack produced?
5. What are the most common vehicles?
6. Where are rosin varnishes used?
7. How does news ink dry?
8. What do you do when you need a lighter tint than you have?
9. What makes a good mixing surface for ink?
10. How do you check a mixed colour?

Text 5C
Задание 1. Прочтите текст.
On a printing press, ink must be transformed from a massive volume to a thin film which can then be transferred to a surface being printed. There are two ways of providing this distribution: one is by means of a doctor knife, whereby ink is spread at one go, and the other is by means of a train of distribution rollers, whereby ink is split in the nip between successive rollers in the train. For successful doctor blade spreading, the viscosity of the ink must be low. Photogravure and flexographic inks are of low viscosity, so doctor blade spreading can be adopted. An example in the handling of letterpress and offset inks is the movement of ink out of the ink duct. As the duct roller rotates, a film of ink is spread on the roll by the duct blade.
If an ink is of low viscosity and has little or no yield, elaborate distribution systems are not needed. With photogravure and other machines using liquid inks, the duct is simply a trough from which the ink is withdrawn by contact.
If an ink has a yield value this is indicative of flocculation, so it is necessary to use a more elaborate distribution system which is capable of performing sufficient work on the ink to break up the flocculates. This is the purpose of the roller trains and ancillary devices used on offset and letterpress machines.
Once the ink has been broken down into a thin film, it must be transferred to the substrate being printed. This final printing action can be regarded as a special case of ink distribution and transfer in which one surface initially has a zero ink film thickness, and is commonly absorbent to ink.
Notes to the text:
1. doctor blade – ракельный нож
2. nip – зазор
3. yield – текучесть
4. flocculation – выпадение хлопьями, флоккуляция

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. How many ways of ink distribution do you know?
2. What inks have low viscosity?
3. When are elaborate distribution systems needed?
4. What is indicative of flocculation?
5. For what purpose are the roller trains and ancillary devices used on offset and letterpress machines?

Задание 3. Озаглавьте текст.

Text 5D
Задание 1. Прочтите текст.
Drying Principle
Offset printing inks form a solid printing ink film on the substrate by means of drying or curing processes.
These processes can be based on a physical or a chemical mechanism or on the effect of both of these two processes.
The physical drying process can be divided into absorption and evaporation phases and is accelerated by heat.
When using absorbent substrates such as paper or cardboard, it is mainly the low-viscosity components of the paste inks which penetrate into the capillaries of the substrate, thereby enriching the binder on the surface and quickly forming a tack-free ink layer. This method of drying is called absorption. Absorption is an important drying mechanism for offset and letterpress printing inks. Web offset newspaper printing (coldset) and rotary letterpress newspaper printing are solely based on this drying mechanism. Therefore, the absorbency of newsprint is very significant for drying.
In heatset web offset printing, the paper web is run through a drying oven where the thinner contained in the inks evaporates at temperatures far in excess of 120 °C. The temperature of the circulating air in the dryer is between 160 °C and 220 °C, and generally heats up the paper webs to temperatures between 90 °C and 130 °C. In the subsequent purification process the evaporated components in the exhaust air are extracted, usually by thermal or regenerative afterburning.
Oxidative drying is a chemical process. So-called 'drying' oils and resins are cross-linked by a reaction with the oxygen in the air. To accelerate the reaction, the printing ink contains siccatives which act as catalysts. In general, these are metal soaps consisting of cobalt, manganese, calcium, iron and similar metal compounds with fatty acids such as linoleic acid or other organic acids such as octanoic acid and naphthenic acid. The entire drying process takes several hours. Heat and careful airing of the stack accelerate this chemical reaction.
Ultraviolet (UV) and electron-beam (EB) radiation are used to harden specially designed printing inks and varnishes. The radiation energy generates highly reactive particles in the ink layer which trigger an abrupt chain reaction, resulting in a solid, very resistant and high-gloss ink layer being formed. This process is used for printing inks which do not contain any thinners, meaning that an excellent result can be achieved even when printing on non-absorbent substrates such as foils, aluminized paper etc.
The two principles of drying mentioned, physical absorption (or evaporation) and chemical oxidation, are used in different proportions with offset printing inks. There are also examples of each of the pure reaction processes. With the majority of inks, the two processes are applied in combination. On the basis of the varying proportions in the process, the entire range of offset printing inks can be divided into categories of more or less oxidative drying or more or less physical drying.
The coldset inks used in newspaper printing, which employ a single drying process, can be cited as an extreme example in the category of physical drying. The solidification of the printing ink film takes place solely by physical separation of the low-viscosity ink components from the solids content by means of absorbency of the substrate - namely the newsprint. The capillary action of the paper surface is the sole driving force in this separation, and it is clear that a change in the paper surface has a major influence on the solid/liquid separation effect, and therefore also visibly affects the so-called drying of the printing ink. This is the case, for example, with high-finish newsprint or high-glazed paper and also grades of soft-calender treated paper. Changing these paper properties can even lead to a situation where it is necessary to alter the composition of the printing ink to be able to guarantee certain printability properties when switching to this kind of paper.
This sole drying mechanism also shows the latent weakness of all coldset products, namely the tendency toward offsetting or smearing. An additional solidification of the printing ink film due, for example, to a chemical reaction (oxidation) also encompasses the possibility of interaction with the fibres of the paper. This would result in significantly stronger anchoring and therefore better rub resistance but would also certainly make it more difficult to redissolve components of the printing ink. This simple separation is, however, an indispensable requirement for paper recycling using a de-inking process.
We divide coldset inks into categories according to their viscosity, which itself is determined by the various inking unit constructions. We therefore differentiate between 'long' low-viscosity newspaper printing inks for inking units with overshot ink (duct) knives, 'short' high-viscosity inks for those inking units with undershot ink (duct) knives and also a special kind of ink for keyless anilox inking units.
With web offset heatset inks the ink drying also takes place to a large extent purely physically by separation of the low-viscosity thinner components of the ink. A small amount is absorbed into the substrate. However, by far the greatest proportion evaporates when heat is applied. Here, air that has been heated in the drying ovens is blown as turbulant blast onto the layer of printing ink. This blast of air causes the thinner to evaporate and removes it. To enable this to happen the evaporation properties of the thinner must be such that it can evaporate as quickly as possible at oven temperatures of just 160 to 220°C.
The blast of air must, however, be efficient enough to guarantee removal of the thinner which has already evaporated out of the ink film. If the correct force is not achieved, thinner can be seen condensing on the chill rollers behind the drying oven. This is predominantly on the first and third chill roller, and can lead to disturbing ink softening again in the print.
With heatset inks a certain proportion of oxidative drying takes place. This can be estimated to be around 5 to 10 %. The use of various types of paper with different surface properties (sensitivity to picking/ sensitivity to picking when wet) makes adjustment of the printing inks necessary to match these properties.
Here we make a distinction between ink formulations for coated paper, calendered or super-calendered paper and inks for newsprint.
A relatively high proportion of oxidative drying compared to these ink formulations is found with highly rub resistant inks which attain additional rub resistance due to a particular oxidative film formation of the printing ink layer. An even stronger oxidative film formation can be found with inks intended for use in the production of print products which are then personalized using a laser printer. Burning in laser printer toner takes place at a temperature of around 210°C, and the printing ink film must be able to tolerate this.
The formulation of the heatset ink series is oriented towards the demands of different substrates and does not take into account the various press configurations.
Depending on the configuration of the inking or dampening unit used, ink film splitting problems can occur at high production speeds. These effects can lead to insufficient ink transfer onto the paper, which in turn leads to insufficient saturation compared to the original. With higher printing speeds, the rotational speed of the rollers in the inking unit usually also increases and sometimes leads to considerable ink misting. The printing ink is severely decompressed at the outlet of the inking rollers and the resulting formation of strands of printing ink leads to droplets forming as the strands break in several places. This is actual ink misting. However, by selecting vehicle systems of a suitable structure it is possible to modify the rheological properties of the printing inks in such a way that they can also satisfy these additional requirements.
The next area is that of classical sheet-fed offset printing inks (printing inks with a higher proportion of oxidative drying components) where infrared drying should be seen as a physical aid to drying. Special series of inks have been formulated to meet the demands of the various processing conditions.
The quantity of physical and chemical drying components in these ink series is approximately equal.
Inks for use on non-absorbent substrates, such as those for foils and to a certain extent aluminized paper, represent the opposite extreme of purely oxidatively drying ink. The special inks used here have a composition which enables the film of printing ink to dry purely by chemical oxidation without any physical adsorption.
This overview enables a systematic classification of all inks used in offset printing.
For a complete description, it is necessary to mention that radiation-curing, so-called UV or EB inks are an inking system which contains no thinners. These inks are fundamentally different from conventional offset inks in their vehicle composition. The vehicles used are capable of reacting with themselves under the influence of UV or electron radiation (polymerization).
Additional Texts
Properties of Water-Based Gravure Inks
A misconception that must be corrected from the start is that water-based inks will be cheaper than their conventional counter-parts. Although a high proportion of water is present, the resins that must be used to achieve the necessary properties are more expensive than those used in solvent-based inks. On the credit side, the water used for thinning is a lot cheaper than solvents. Printability can vary considerably from excellent to appaling and poor results are more common than those that are good. Mottle and dot skip are the major faults although scumming is more common than with solvent-based inks. These are caused primarily by the difficulty in getting water to wet the metal cylinder. Another major factor influencing printability is the grade of paper used. It may be that one has to investigate this problem in detail for the full answer to be found, although it is hoped that further developments in ink formulations will be able to make a significant contribution. The other property making a major contribution to the print quality - that of gloss has been improved considerably over the last couple of years but further improvement is still required to reach present solvent ink standards.
To wet and dry rub resistance of the dried ink films are generally both good when printed on paper and boards although again the substrate can have a considerable influence on the result. Concern has been expressed over problems with foaming, ink stability on storage and rusting of equipment. All can be troublesome but the user of flexo water-based inks does not find them impossible to overcome and foaming is less of a problem than with flexo.
The ink properties described so far are, of course, dependent on the actual formulations used and they can vary considerably. They may be based on either natural or synthetic resins, although it is likely that natural resin-based inks will give too many problems, particularly with variable performance. As with water flexo inks there are formulations on the pigments that may be used, primarily due to problems with stability on storage. To gain full benefit from water-based inks it will be desirable, if not entirely necessary, that the inks be completely free from organic solvents.
Paper Improvements
It is quite clear that there are problems to be overcome in the ink's performance but certain paper improvements are also required. The weakening effect of lithographic dampening solutions brought the introduction of special litho papers when those developed initially for letterpress proved unsatisfactory. Similarly, water-based inks weaken the surface of the coated papers normally supplied for gravure. It will be therefore necessary to introduce products that combine the surface properties necessary for gravure with wet pick strength. Having considered the properties, existing problems and potential benefits to be gained from using water-based gravure inks, what are the likely applications? The first and most obvious is for publication work. The most exciting prospect for the future is the use of water-based inks on plastic and cellulose films. Clearly, microwave drying will be a vital part of such work and therefore printing on foil will not be possible because it causes the microwave waveguide to short circuit. A great deal more work must be done to provide satisfactory adhesion to the different materials and it is probable that a variety of ink systems will be necessary for the different films. Laboratory trials have shown that satisfactory drying and adhesion can be achieved on polythene, although unfortunately the ink had other shortcomings.
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Photopolymer plates

Original letterpress printing plates produced from plastic materials first made their appearance in the early post-war years.
There are three main reasons for the present growth of photopolymer plates:
1. The majority use chemicals which are non-polluting; they are time stable, less dangerous and not so costly as those used for zinc, copper and magnesium.
2. Results are constant from plate to plate and therefore more predictable; actual plate processing is fairly simple and lends itself more readily to automation, particularly for newspapers which have installed photosetting.
3. Overall production costs are less than for metal plates.

Two main systems

The present generation of photopolymer plates can be described as photosensitive plastics; in other words they are plastic materials which harden under the action of ultra-violet light and therefore must not be confused with plastic materials for duplicate plates.
There are two main systems for producing these plates; the first system uses a solid plate material, which consists of:
1. A base, backing, or carrier sheet of either flexible steel or aluminium, polyester or rigid aluminium.
2. Non-sensitive bonding layer.
3. The relief layer of photosensitive plastic.
4. A protective covering of clear foil.
The second system uses a photosensitive liquid resin which is purchased in cans, with the addition of backing or base sheets (metal or plastic) and protection foils for the platemaking process. The basic material of the photosensitive plastic, for both systems, can be either polyurethane, polyester polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate or nylon. The resin, liquid or solid, can be manufactured with a shore hardness compatible with the type of printing it is intended for, such as magazine and commercial work, book printing, newspaper printing and business forms. Some manufacturers even produce a plate material specifically for production of plates for moulding only (pattern plates). Both systems are also capable of producing plates of varying gauge thicknesses for flatbed letterpress, rotary letterpress, dry offset and flexography.

Processing photopolymer plates

The solid photopolymer plate is processed in three stages:
1. After removing the protective plastic foil from the plate surface it is exposed in contact with a right-reading negative to a bank of ultra-violet tubes in a vacuum printing down frame fitted with a plastic cover sheet.
(With some Dycril plates it is necessary to store them in a cabinet containing carbon dioxide. This extracts the air in order to increase the sensitivity of the material. Other Dycril plates are given an extra 'bump' exposure through a special green filter.).
Unlike the process for printing down onto presensitised metal plates, the image is formed by exposing into the photo-sensitive relief layer which, in the case of large open line areas, would be through to the bonding layer; exposure times vary from less than one minute to several minutes, depending upon the material and the type of equipment.
2. Because the entire relief thickness is photosensitive the next stage in processing is a combined one of image development and relief forming; this is carried out in what is called a washout unit under a high-pressure spray of the solvent which, depending upon the type of photopolymer, can be alcohol, sodium hydroxide, borax or in some cases just plain tap water.
3. The final stage is curing or heating the plate to dry it out and then to post-harden it by giving a further exposure to the overall plate surface in order to extend its press life.

Negatives for photopolymer plates

Negatives for many of the solid material plates have to be prepared on a matt surface film. This is to ensure maximum contact between the negative emulsion and plate surface during exposure, otherwise pockets of air will be trapped and retard exposure, which in turn will result in these areas breaking down during the washout operation. Some manufacturers have built the matt effect into the plate material surface so that all types of negative film can be used.
Techniques required for producing photopolymer plates differ from those required for producing similar results on metal. It has long been established that this type of printing surface has a greater ink transference than metal which allows for less impression and therefore less ink squash. The effect of this greater ink transfer is to reduce the contrast between the main shadow area and the lower middle tones, particularly with monochrome work. For example, if the same screen negative is used to produce two plates, one on Nyloprint and one on zinc, when printed side by side on the press using the correct weight of ink for the zinc plate, the Nyloprint plate will print with some filling in of the lower middle tone areas. On the other hand, if the Nyloprint plate is printed with the correct weight of ink, the zinc plate will be lacking in contrast. Some newspapers that use Nyloprint solely for illustrations mount them on the rotary stereo a few thousandths of an inch below the level of the printing surface.

Moulding photopolymer plates

Some photopolymer plates are suitable for newspaper and all types of commercial printing; some are concentrating mainly on the newspaper market, book printing and business forms; others have been produced specifically for the flexographic industry. The volume markets are considered to be newspaper and flexography.

Photopolymer flexo plates

The most recent development in the photopolymer field has been the introduction of new plates for flexographic printing. Although they are initially more expensive than rubber plates it is significant that some of the companies now manufacturing plate materials for flexography have been traditional suppliers of the materials for the production of rubber duplicates.
Laminates control the relief depth. For example, the first layer is laminated to the base plate, exposed to a line positive, washed out in a spray machine and then, after drying, the operation is repeated until the necessary relief layer thickness is achieved. The average mould requires six to seven minutes to produce.
After the relief has been formed on the final laminate the mould has to be cured in a special oven for six to eight hours before being used.
The vertical relief duplicate rubber plates produced from Foto-Flex moulds allow much longer press runs with no loss of quality because as the relief wears
down, there is no thickening of the image. The company used one set of plates for a 10 million press run on cartons and although the rubber relief had worn down by 0.152 mm there was no thickening of the image as there would normally be with rubbers produced from original photoengravings.

Laser plates

Several manufacturers of photopolymer plate materials have for some months been experimenting in the field of lasers, which will allow direct copy-to-plate exposures, thereby eliminating the camera. The first commercial operation in this field is in Elmira, New York State, where a system known as Laser-Graph is producing all the full-page plates for the local daily newspaper.
Two main items of equipment are being used to produce a Laser-Graph plate direct from the compositor’s paste-up, a Scan-Scriber unit and an Ablation unit. The planned page, protected by a sheet of clear foil, is placed on a vacuum base at the scanning end of the Scan-Scriber and at the scribing end is placed a blank Laser-Plate, which is made up of the following: a 0.254-mm thick aluminium base to which is laminated a 0.508-mm thick layer of plastic material which forms the relief in the finished plate; an extremely fine layer of copper foil (non photosensitive) is laminated to the plastic relief layer.
As the paste-up page passes into the unit a helium-neon laser scans the copy and simultaneously an argon laser removes the copper foil covering the future non printing areas of the blank plate. The Scan-Scriber operation takes two minutes for one full newspaper page, and at this stage the plate has a visible copper image but no relief. The plate is then transferred to the Ablation unit, where a carbon dioxide laser vaporizes the plastic non-image areas of the plate in four minutes to form the relief. It is then punched and crimped at both ends, and without requiring to be pre-curved is ready for the press room. Total plate production time is six minutes.

Rubber and plastics stereotypes

The demand for flexible duplicates which are capable of printing illustrated magazines has been largely superseded by the use of photopolymer materials which can produce plastics plates direct from the negative, but for long runs of text and line work such as bookwork and commercial stationery, rubber and plastics duplicates continue to be used in large quantities.
For the flexographic printing of packaging materials, rubber stereos continue to be used in increasing quantities and further growth in the use of rubber is taking place in wallpaper and textile printing. A comparatively recent development in rubber platemaking is the introduction of grades suitable for printing 120-line process colour onto plastics foils. These provide an attractive alternative to gravure in shorter runs where the cost of gravure cylinders is difficult to justify.
Taking as a basis the amount of platemaking materials being used, the present position of rubber and plastics stereotyping can be summarised as indicating a rapid increase in the use of rubber and a continuing use of thermoplastic materials by larger book printing units.
The materials used for the production of rubber and plastics stereotypes are supplied in the form of powders, granules, pellets and sheets of various thicknesses and although referred to as simply a ‘rubber' or a 'plastics', these materials are in fact compounds of many different substances mixed together to produce grades in which the true rubber or plastics content may be less than 75 per cent of the bulk. Further, this broad classification into rubber or plastics material is confused by the existence of materials which consist of blends of rubber and plastics. A more satisfactory classification therefore is one based upon the behaviour of the material under platemaking conditions since all of the materials in use are either heat setting or heat softening.
Heat-setting materials are those which, under the influence of heat and pressure, can initially be made to flow and take up a new shape and with continued heating undergo a chemical change permanently setting the material into the new shape. The basic platemaking operations consist of heating the mass until it reaches a stiffly flowing or malleable condition and after pressing it into the new shape holding it under heat and pressure for a 'curing' or 'vulcanising' period. Those materials which set into a rigid condition are the 'thermosetting plastics' and those which set into a resilient mass are those normally classified as 'rubbers'. It should be noted that, because the curing takes place as a result of heat, no chilling press is required and also that, because the curing reaction in irreversible, neither thermosetting plastics or rubber materials can be reclaimed for use in platemaking.
Heat softening materials also can be made to flow and take up a new shape when subjected to heat and pressure but, because there is no curing reaction, they remain soft until cooled. Materials with these characteristics are the 'thermoplastic plastics', and platemaking equipment will include both a heating and a chilling press. Thermoplastic materials are available in rigid grades which produce plates superficially similar to those produced in thermosetting plastics and in grades having flexible properties resembling rubber. An important feature of thermoplastics is their low heat resistance. This makes it impossible to include them in work which is to be hot moulded, but it also implies that the material can be re-used for platemaking.
Thermosetting platemaking materials are supplied as fibre boards and moulding powders based upon the polymer phenol-formaldehyde. In the cured condition these materials will withstand temperatures up to 250°C and are therefore particularly suitable for production of the matrices from which all types of rubber and plastics plates can be made. These same phenolic materials, hot pressed into one of these matrices, are used to produce rigid thermosetting plates. Such plates however are only suitable for flat-bed printing or for use as embossing dies.
Rubbers are either natural, synthetic or plasticised, the latter consisting of blends of synthetic rubber and a plastics such as PVC. All are available in sheets of various thicknesses and in a range of different hardnesses, but the plasticised rubbers are usually supplied in granular form. Stereo rubbers based upon natural rubber are considered to produce plates of the highest resiliency and longest printing life, but are attacked by the solvents used in letterpress printing inks as well as some of those used in flexographic inks. Oil and solvent resistance is obtained by using one of the synthetic rubbers, but it is important to choose the correct type for the particular inks being used. Solvent attack can cause the rubber to swell and lead to variations in printing impression or, in extreme cases, complete disintegration of the plate.
An important feature of rubber plates is their long printing life, many million copies being commonplace. The plasticised rubbers, although not capable of such long runs have the ability to print finer screens than is possible with unblended rubbers of comparable hardnesses, and have found applications in the production of frozen food wrappers.
Thermoplastic platemaking materials are available in the form of powders, granules, pellets and sheets of hardnesses suitable for all classes of flat-bed and rotary letterpress printing. Most materials are based upon PVC and are resistant to all normal inks and solvents. Flexible grades have printing characteristics similar to those of rubber, but printing life is only of the order of 100,000 impressions. For rotary printing, plates made in these grades can be curved by the application of gentle heat. Thermoplastic platemaking offers potentially faster production than rubber and it is possible to reclaim offcuts and reject plates but the plates suffer from the disadvantages of a more limited printing life and the necessity to use both a heating and a chilling cycle. Laminated plates of many different types are in current use and may consist of two or more layers of different grades of the same material or layers of dissimilar but compatible materials such as PVC and synthetic rubber. The most usual reason for lamination is to give a flexible plate with a surface hard enough to print fine detail, but occasionally the objective is lower material costs.
An attractive feature of rubber and plastics platemaking is the comparatively small amount of equipment required.

Waterless lithography
Let's take a look at a variety of developments that promise to offer a competitive challenge to the dominance of web offset.
After more than two decades of trying, the practical development of waterless lithography is on the verge of creating a process revolution in both sheet-fed and web. The elimination of water in the lithographic process has, in effect, created a whole new printing process. For lack of a better name, we may call it "waterless lithography;" the concept is, in reality, a fundamentally new way to print.
When water is taken out of lithography, the basic chemistry of the process changes. Although still using the principle of offsetting an image onto a blanket for transfer to paper or other substrates, the characteristics of press operation and the resulting product change.
The elimination of the conventional dampening system and, therefore, all of the process variables associated with achieving ink-water balance is at the heart of the driography (waterless) process' potential advantage.
Along with eliminating water, alcohol and alcohol substitutes, the utilization of the environmentally friendly process results in quality improvements. "Cleaner" appearing resolution screens can be run - 200- to 300-line screens are common, with reports of screen rulings in excess of 600 lines. Although there are claimed economical advantages for driography, it is the upgraded quality that will propel the process into competition with conventional offset.
One of the principal reasons for enhanced quality in driographic printing is that printing is accomplished with non-emulsified inks due to the elimination of water. This results in a reduction in dot gain since one of its primary causes is ink emulsification. Reduced dot gain makes it possible to run finer screens without plugging.
Waterless heatset web printing yields dramatic enhancement of offset quality that approaches continuous-tone printing and offers a faster, environmentally friendlier alternative to conventional printing.
While driography takes the water out of the printing process, flexography and gravure are working to create process advantages over offset by putting water into their processes.
Flexography is an established process widely used for such products as paperback books, labels and packaging products.
Several years ago, water-based flexo was developed as an ecologically friendly upgrade. This new flexo technique has achieved significant, but nevertheless small, penetration into the worldwide newspaper industry. Unlike petroleum-based offset and letterpress inks, the new generation water-based flexo inks dry on the surface of porous newsprint, avoiding the wicking phenomenon that creates the fuzzy edges and graying of the sheet.
Flexo printed newspapers are characterized by sharp-edged printing with bold, vibrant colors, extraordinarily black blacks and a whiter-appearing paper. However, on an overall quality scale, the best of flexo generally is viewed as lower in quality than the best of offset - particularly for single-color halftones.
In newspapers, flexo's success generally has come when there has been a conversion from an obsolete letterpress to an updated printing process. Flexo can win in the conversion situation, in part because it offers lower newsprint costs. The nature of the new generation newspaper flexo process is such that virtually the first paper out of the press is commercially salable, creating little, if any, makeready waste.
Gravure and heatset web printers have eyed each other's markets for some time. Gravure, looking to make changes to compete more effectively at shorter run lengths, meets heatset web, attempting to be more competitive at longer run lengths.
Gravure advocates substantiate their technical advances with filmless cylinder making, automated press operation, advantages achieved through paper and ink used by the process, and their utilization of advanced material handling
systems.
Many gravure printing operations, particularly in Europe, achieve reduced costs and faster throughput by using modern materials handling techniques, such as automated conveyors and gathering devices to take the product away from the press and advanced handling system to store and transport signatures.
The gravure industry also is improving productivity by making presses that are more automated, run faster and are wider.
Gravure press manufacturers are increasing and improving their automated control systems, while at the same time undertaking operational simplification programs with the ultimate goal of one press, one operator.
Strides forward also are being made in gravure weak spots such as energy utilization and pollution control. The explosive nature of the solvents used in the gravure process, the need to recapture and recycle those solvents and the requirement for expensive pollution control and containment equipment is, in today's sensitive environment, a severe limitation for this printing process.
Developments in computer technology, refinements in non-impact imaging and the development of new imaging technology all are accelerating to make the digital printing press a reality in an ever-expanding range of markets.
There are many technical contenders for the output mechanism in a digital press, including lasers, various forms of electrostatics, electronic beam imaging, ion deposition, ink-jet, and several that have not yet been announced.
There will be an increasing variety of choices for printers to make in selecting the process that is optimal for their specific market. But these choices, and the utilization of the best technology for customer requirements, are exactly what will keep print alive and well in a highly competitive world of information and communications.

Litho Platemaking

Most supply companies producing platemaking materials market pre-sensitised plates, and these are normally grouped under two headings - diazo compounds or polymer resin coatings. The basic difference is that diazo images are non-receptive to grease while the polymer group is naturally grease receptive.
Diazo coated plates are supplied with either negative or positive - working coatings. Due to the peculiarities of this coating, it is necessary to use plates that have a fine grain, but this has the advantage of allowing excellent tonal reproduction. When negative - working coatings are exposed they are rendered insoluble to the solutions used on the press; the non-exposed areas are then developed away. The image may subsequently be inked or lacquered and finally treated with a de-sensitising solution. However there is at least one type of plate that needs no lacquering after processing as the image lacquer is applied at the time of manufacture.
Positive - working coatings, unlike other photo-litho coatings which are hardened upon exposure to ultra-violet light, are rendered soluble in the alkaline developer solution, leaving an image of unexposed coating. After development, the image is lacquered or inked and finally de-sensitised. Any unwanted areas, such as film edges, may be removed with a correcting fluid before final de-sensitising.
Polymer-coated plates are negative-working and rely on the action of U-V light to polymerise the coating in the image areas. The unexposed coating is washed away with developer. Because of the grease receptive nature of polymer images, they do not need lacquering or inking if the plate is to go direct to the press.
Apart from diazo compounds and polymer resin coatings used in preparing presensitised plates, there are a number of other surface treatments used in platemaking; they are nearly as varied as the different plate processes used.
Main types of plate materials in current use are divided into five categories; direct image and electrostatic; chemical transfer; surface; deep etch; and bimetal.
DIRECT IMAGE AND ELECTROSTATIC

Direct image

This is the simplest form of the plate processes and origination is placed onto a paper plate directly from a typewriter. The plate is then treated with gum and phosphoric acid solution in preparation for printing. Being suitable only for short-run work, this type of plate barely comes within the scope of the commercial printer (print run: approx 1,000).
Electrostatic

There are two types of platemaking process involved here, one is transfer and the other is direct. The transfer system employs a selenium plate; the selenium is photoconductive and can be used more than once. The photoconductive plate is positively charged in special units necessary to the process. It is then exposed in a camera, where reductions and enlargements are possible. The white light reflected from the background areas of the original disperses the positive charge in the corresponding area on the plate, which is then dusted with a negatively charged powder which sticks to the image areas. A suitable printing plate is then placed onto the selenium plate and the image transferred. Finally, the powder is fused onto the printing plate to complete the process.
An alternative method of platemaking using the electrostatic principle is produced directly from copy. The special surface layer is of an organic photo-conductive nature. The plate itself is charged positively and exposed. The latent image is then developed by passing thorough the image-forming pigment. At this stage alterations can be made to copy simply by wiping away the powder. The powder is then heat-fused to the image for 30 sec at 1700C. The coating in the non-image areas must be removed with the appropriate de-coating fluid before the process is complete (print run: approx 100,000 on metal plates).

Chemical transfer

In this process, also known as transfer diffusion, a silver-halide negative and original are exposed together. Light passes through the negative from the back and reflects from the original onto the negative coating to obtain a latent image. Exposure can be obtained through transmitted light for translucent or clear originals. The original is placed over a light box, the side to be copied facing upwards and the negative with emulsion side up.
The resulting negative is then fed into a processor with a specially coated plate where it is developed and then rolled into contact with the plate. The unexposed emulsion areas on the negative are therefore transferred onto the plate where they diffuse into the surface coating. The plate is then developed and fixed to produce an image of firmly adhered silver.
The plate processes used incorporate both exposing and processing units, thereby eliminating the need for dark-rooms and special plumbing (print run: approx 10,000-100,000).

Ink series in web offset
The buyer of web offset inks, and also the printer at the offset rotation, is often faced with the question as to which of the many ink series offered on the market is best suited to his requirements. The various factors which have to be taken into account so as to make the right choice, and the reasons for the existence of varying ink formulations, are explained below.
The demands placed on the processing properties of an ink are ultimately oriented towards the customer's wishes, i.e. towards the expectations placed on the printed product. We can say with certainty that the conveying of information, be it the portrayal of a landscape in a travel brochure or of a food, e.g. meat or fruit in a newspaper supplement for a supermarket, or the design of a packaging, be it for a tin of food or a pack of potato crisps, has to be as authentic as possible. This ensures that the observer is able to recognize the image being portrayed, even if in part only sub-consciously, and that the observer feels that he is being addressed directly.
The first factor to impact on the result of a print is without doubt the choice of substrate. The surface structure, i.e. the glossiness or roughness of the paper surface, as well as the inherent color of the paper, which may range from a bright white to a more or less yellowish color, have a considerable impact on the quality of image reproduction. Smooth, glossy papers allow much more brilliant, high-resolution image reproduction than slightly yellowish, uneven substrates, where the paper fiber structure is still visible after printing.
Another - invisible - paper quality also has a not inconsiderable impact on the printing result. The capillary structure of the paper determines the extent to which the ink is absorbed, and this has a decisive impact on the color strength of the printed ink on the paper.
The surface solidity of the substrate has major consequences for the ink to be used. Any damage to the paper surface, e.g. the picking of paper fibers or coating particles, has a negative impact on the visual appearance of the printed matter, as well as on the continuous production run, and in particular with larger print runs.
An unsmooth full-surface print caused by the build-up of paper dust from paper fibers on the printing plate can only be overcome by repeated washing. While the rubber blanket is cleaned, the washing procedure also affects the printing plate, from which the contaminants are carried away via the paper web when the press cylinder is reset.
When evaluating the picking susceptibility of a paper, it is not only the tendency of the dry paper web to form dust which is of significance, but rather the property of the paper surface after contact with the water of the damping system. In the case of papers which tend to pick, individual paper fibers are very often straighten up to the surface after contact with the water of the damping system and come away from the surface of the paper. As a result they can easily be torn out due to adhesion with the rubber blanket and are then passed on to the printing plate by re-separation. Here they accumulate, particularly if there is also a lesser degree of material transport of ink towards the web due to low ink consumption.
In these cases the ink needs to be adjusted with respect to its tack in such a way that, on the one hand, it is not too sticky, so that this does not lead to increased picking of paper fibers, and so that, on the other hand, it has sufficient adhesion/cohesion so as to guarantee the continuous transport of paper dust via the printed paper web. In this respect one also has to consider that at this stage of the printing process the ink is in an emulsified state with fountain solution. There are findings that the water of the damping system is not only present in the ink in an emulsified state, as so-called "interior water", but also as so-called "surface water" where the ink and air come into contact.
Библиографический список

1. Кузнецова С.А., Мусницкая Е.В., Павлова К.Г. Программа курса иностранного языка для вузов неязыковых специальностей. М.: МГЛУ, Учеб.-метод. объединение по образованию в области лингвистики. Центральный кабинет методики обучения иностранным языкам, 2004. – 75 с.
2. Журналы «British Printer», «Print», «American Ink Maker», «Print Week», 2006-2008.
3. Siegwerk Group International «Offset Printing Inks». – Germany; Siegburg, 2004. – 30 с.
4. Сборник научных трудов. Выпуск № 454. Профессиональная ком-муникация как цель обучения иностранному языку в неязыковом вузе. – М.: МГЛУ, 2000. – 134 с.
5. Вестник МГЛУ. Выпуск 467. - М.: МГЛУ, 2002, – 148 с.
6. Вестник МГЛУ. Выпуск 477. - М.: МГЛУ, 2003, – 162 с.
Содержание

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Тексты для дополнительного самостоятельного чтения .………………..

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Редактор Т. А. Москвитина

Компьютерная верстка, дизайн обложки – Е. В. Беспалова

ИД № 06039 от 12.10.2001 г.

Подписано в печать 23.01.09. Формат 60×84 1/16. Бумага офсетная.
Отпечатано на дупликаторе. Усл. печ. л. 5,5. Уч.-изд. л. 5,5.
Тираж 100. Заказ 128.
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