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kiyanyn про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Да, никто не сделал большего для развития украинского самосознания и воспитания ненависти ко всему российскому даже в самых пророссийских регионах Украины, как ВВП в феврале...

Именно он - по делам, а не по словам - лучший друг бандеровцев :(

Рейтинг: 0 ( 0 за, 0 против).
pva2408 про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Конечно не существовало. Если конечно не читать украинских учебников))
«Украинский народ – самый древний народ в мире. Ему уже 140 тысяч лет»©
В них древние укры изобрели колесо, выкопали Черное море а , а землю использовали для создания Кавказских гор, били др. греков и римлян которые захватывали южноукраинские города, А еще Ной говорил на украинском языке, галлы родом из украинской же Галиции, украинцем был легендарный Спартак, а

подробнее ...

Рейтинг: +5 ( 7 за, 2 против).
Дед Марго про Грицак: Когда появился украинский народ? (Альтернативная история)

Просто этот народ с 9 века, когда во главе их стали норманы-русы, назывался русским, а уже потом московиты, его неблагодарные потомки, присвоили себе это название, и в 17 веке появились малороссы украинцы))

Рейтинг: -6 ( 2 за, 8 против).
fangorner про Алый: Большой босс (Космическая фантастика)

полная хня!

Рейтинг: +3 ( 3 за, 0 против).
Stribog73 про Тарасов: Руководство по программированию на Форте (Руководства)

В книге ошибка. Слово UNLOOP спутано со словом LEAVE. Имейте в виду.

Рейтинг: +2 ( 2 за, 0 против).
Дед Марго про Дроздов: Революция (Альтернативная история)

Плохо. Ни уму, ни сердцу. Картонные персонажи и незамысловатый сюжет. Хороший писатель превратившийся в бюрократа от литературы. Если Военлета, Интенданта и Реваншиста хотелось серез время перечитывать, то этот опус еле домучил.

Рейтинг: +1 ( 3 за, 2 против).
Сентябринка про Орлов: Фантастика 2022-15. Компиляция. Книги 1-14 (Фэнтези: прочее)

Жаль, не успела прочитать.

Рейтинг: 0 ( 1 за, 1 против).

Словарь-компаньон для тех, кто изучает экономику [Валентина Кононова] (pdf) читать онлайн

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В.А. Кононова
В.А. Разумовская
СЛОВАРЬ-КОМПАНЬОН ДЛЯ ТЕХ, КТО ИЗУЧАЕТ ЭКОНОМИКУ
COMPANION-DICTIONARY FOR THOSE WHO STUDY ECONOMICS

Пособие предназначено для активизации
знания и контекстуального употребления базовой экономической терминологии английского языка.

В.А. Кононова
В.А. Разумовская

СЛОВАРЬКОМПАНЬОН
ДЛЯ ТЕХ,
КТО ИЗУЧАЕТ
ЭКОНОМИКУ

COMPANIONDICTIONARY
FOR THOSE
WHO STUDY
ECONOMICS

Министерство науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации
Сибирский федеральный университет

В.А. Кононова, В.А. Разумовская

Учебное пособие

Красноярск
СФУ
2019

УДК 330(038)
ББК 65я2
К647
Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
П.П. Дашинимаева, доктор филологических наук, профессор
кафедры перевода и межкультурной коммуникации Бурятского
государственного университета;
Е.Г. Тарева, доктор педагогических наук, заведующий кафедрой французского языка и лингводидактики Московского городского педагогического университета

К647

Кононова, В.А.
Словарь-компаньон для тех, кто изучает экономику =
Companion-dictionary for those who study economics : учеб.
пособие / В.А. Кононова, В.А. Разумовская. – Красноярск :
Сиб. федер. ун-т, 2019. – 248 с.
ISBN 978-5-7638-4071-1
Даны определения (представленные в алфавитном порядке) на английском языке 589 базовых терминов, используемых в современной
мировой экономике.
Предназначено для занятий по английскому языку для студентов,
обучающихся по направлению 38.03.01 «Экономика».

Электронный вариант издания см.:
http://catalog.sfu-kras.ru

ISBN 978-5-7638-4071-1

УДК 330(038)
ББК 65я2

© Сибирский федеральный университет, 2019

Уважаемый студент!
Если вы изучаете современную международную экономику,
это учебное пособие поможет в самостоятельной подготовке как по
английскому языку, так и по предметам экономического блока, особенно при занятиях по учебникам N. Gregory Mankiw Principles of
Economics (Thomson South-Western) и/или Ellie Tragakes Economics
for the IB Diploma (Cambridge University Press). Книга будет вашим
компаньоном и при чтении текстов для общего понимания трендов
мирового экономического развития.
Известно, что термины могут иметь не одно или два, а множество значений. Например, существительное cost используется тогда,
когда говорят или пишут о цене, стоимости, затратах, расходах, счёте, активах, взносе, издержках и т. д. Мы предлагаем основные, самые частотные употребления, необходимые прежде всего для понимания учебных текстов при чтении, а также переводе несложных
устных и письменных профессиональных текстов в языковой паре
«английский – русский».
Помимо определения, каждый термин сопровождается одним
или несколькими контекстами из современных аутентичных американских, британских и российских источников, таких как отчеты
Всемирного банка или популярные твиты подписчиков журнала
«Форбс». Эти контексты можно использовать для лучшего понимания их реального использования, для перевода (индивидуального
и в учебных парах и группах). Например, рассмотрим, как можно
поработать с термином ‘abnormal profit’, который, допустим, встретился вам в каком-то учебном тексте. Вы находите определение
термина в пособии, читаете его вместе с контекстами вслух два-три
раза. Затем закрываете страницу и пытаетесь воспроизвести определение и контексты вслух. Открываете первое предложение-контекст
и переводите на русский язык либо передаете его смысл на русском
языке. Переходите ко второму предложению. Третье предложение
предполагает перевод с русского на английский, попытайтесь его
сделать. Обсудите переводы в паре или группе. Вновь вернитесь
к определению и прочитайте еще раз. Подумайте о собственных
примерах употребления термина в других контекстах.

ABNORMAL PROFIT – сверхприбыль
The term ‘abnormal profit’ refers to positive economic profit,
arising when total revenue is greater than total economic costs (implicit
plus explicit costs); is also known as ‘supernormal profit’.

Помимо этих контекстов, каждый блок (соответствует букве
алфавита) предваряется эпиграфом, который дает дополнительную
возможность знакомства с нетривиальным использованием современных экономических терминов.
«Словарь-компаньон для тех, кто изучает экономику» предназначен для студентов, которые достигли «порогового» или среднего
уровня английского языка (В1 по общеевропейской шкале языковой
компетенции CEFR).

Желаем вам успеха в познании основ
современной мировой экономики на английском языке.

ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE – принцип платежеспособности
Ability-to-pay principle is the idea that taxes should be levied on a person
according to how well that person can shoulder the burden.
One of the ways to evaluate the equity of a tax system is called the
ability-to-pay principle, which states that taxes should be levied on
a person according to how well that person can shoulder the burden. This
principle is sometimes justified by the claim that all citizens should make
an “equal sacrifice” to support the government. The magnitude of a person’s sacrifice, however, depends not only on the size of his tax payment
but also on his income and other circumstances. A $1,000 tax paid by
a poor person may require a larger sacrifice than a $10,000 tax paid by
a rich one.

ABNORMAL PROFIT – сверхприбыль
The term ‘abnormal profit’ refers to positive economic profit, arising
when total revenue is greater than total economic costs (implicit plus
explicit costs); is also known as ‘supernormal profit’.

ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE – абсолютное преимущество
Absolute advantage refers to the ability of a party (an individual, or firm,
or country) to produce a greater quantity of a good, product, or service
than competitors, using the same amount of resources. Absolute advantage is the ability to produce a good using fewer inputs than another
producer. Economists use the term absolute advantage when comparing
the productivity of one person, firm, or nation to that of another. The producer that requires a smaller quantity of inputs to produce a good is said to
have an absolute advantage in producing that good.

ABSOLUTE POVERTY – абсолютное обнищание; крайняя нищета
Absolute poverty is the inability of an individual or a family to afford
a basic standard of goods and services, where this standard is absolute and
unchanging over time. Absolute poverty is defined in relation to a nationally or internationally determined ‘poverty line’, which determines the
minimum income that can sustain a family in terms of its basic needs.

ACCOUNTING PROFIT – балансовая прибыль, учетная прибыль
Accounting profit is total revenue minus total explicit cost.
An accountant measures the firm’s accounting profit as the firm’s total
revenue minus only the firm’s explicit costs.

ACTUAL OUTPUT – выработка продукции фактическая; фактический объём производства
Actual output is the quantity of output actually produced by an economy.
In the context of the production possibilities model, it may be contrasted
with production possibilities: actual output occurs somewhere inside an
economy’s production possibilities curve (PPC) because of the presence
of unemployed resources and productive inefficiency. In the context of the
AD–AS model, it may be contrasted with potential output, given by the
position of an economy’s long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve: actual
output may be higher or lower than potential output (if there is an inflationary or deflationary gap) or it may be equal to potential output (if the
economy is in long-run equilibrium).

ADMINISTRATIVE BARRIERS – административные барьеры
Administrative barriers are trade protection measures taking the form of
administrative procedures that countries may use to prevent the free flow
of imports into a country; these may include customs procedures involving inspections and valuation, controls on packaging, and others. Often
considered to be a kind of ‘hidden’ trade protection as they don’t involve
obvious trade protection measures such as tariffs and quotas.

AD VALOREM TAXES – налог на стоимостной основе; налог с указанной цены; адвалорный налог
Ad valorem taxes are taxes calculated as a fixed percentage of the price of
the good or service; the amount of tax increases as the price of the good or
service increases.

ADVERSE SELECTION – негативный выбор
Adverse selection is the tendency for the mix of unobserved attributes to
become undesirable
from the standpoint of an uninformed party.
Adverse selection is a problem that arises in markets in which the seller
knows more about the attributes of the good being sold than the buyer
does. In such a situation, the buyer runs the risk of being sold a good of
low quality. That is, the “selection” of goods sold may be “adverse” from
the standpoint of the uninformed buyer.

AGENT – доверенное лицо
Agent is a person who is performing an act for another person, called the
principal.
If the principal cannot perfectly monitor the agent’s behavior, the agent
tends to undertake less effort than the principal considers desirable.

AGGREGATE DEMAND – совокупный спрос; общий объём спроса
на товары и услуги на данном рынке
Aggregate demand is the total quantity of goods and services that all
buyers in an economy (consumers, firms, the government and foreigners)
want to buy over a particular time period, at different possible price levels,
ceteris paribus.

AGGREGATE DEMAND CURVE – кривая совокупного спроса
An aggregate demand curve is the curve that shows the relationship between total quantity of goods and services that all buyers in an economy
(households, firms, the government) want to buy over a particular time
period (aggregate demand), measured on the horizontal axis, plotted
against the price level, measured on the vertical axis , and customers
abroad want to buy at each price level.

AGGREGATE SUPPLY – совокупное предложение товаров и услуг;
совокупное предложение
Aggregate supply is the total quantity of goods and services produced in
an economy over a particular time period, at different price levels, ceteris
paribus.

AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE – кривая совокупного предложения
An aggregate-supply curve a curve that shows the quantity of goods and
services that firms choose to produce and sell at each price level.

ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY – аллокационная / аллокативная эффективность; эффективность распределительных ресурсов
Allocative efficiency is an allocation of resources that results in producing
the combination and quantity of goods and services mostly preferred by
consumers. It is achieved when the economy allocates its resources so that
no one can become better off in terms of increasing their benefit from
consumption without someone else becoming worse off. The condition for
allocative efficiency is given by P = MC (price is equal to marginal cost).

ANTI-DUMPING – анти-демпинг
Anti-dumping is an argument that justifies trade protection policies: if a
country’s trading partner is suspected of practicing dumping, then the
country should have the right to impose trade protection measures (tariffs
or quotas) to limit quantities of the dumped good.

APPRECIATION – повышение курса валюты; завышение оценочной
стоимости; прирост стоимости основного капитала
Appreciation is an increase in the value of a currency as measured by the
amount of foreign currency it can buy. / If the exchange rate changes so
that a dollar buys more foreign currency, that change is called an appreciation of the dollar.

APPRECIATION OF A CURRENCY / CURRENCY APPRECIATION –
повышение курса валюты; ревальвация
Appreciation of a currency refers to an increase in the value of a currency in the context of a floating (or flexible) exchange rate system or managed exchange rate system (compare with revaluation, which refers to an
increase in currency value in the context of a fixed exchange rate system).

APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY – экологически чистая технология
Appropriate technologies are technologies that are well-suited to a country’s particular economic, geographical, ecological and climate conditions.
Often used in connection with labour-abundant developing countries that
require labour-intensive (as opposed to capita- intensive) technologies.

ARROW’S IMPOSSIBILITY THEOREM (Arrow’s paradox) – «Парадокс Эрроу», теорема «о невозможности демократии» как «коллективного выбора», иначе называют «теоремой о неизбежности диктатора».
Arrow’s impossibility theorem is a mathematical result showing that,
under certain assumed conditions, there is no scheme for aggregating individual preferences into a valid set of social preferences. The theorem is

named after economist and Nobel Laureate Kenneth Arrow. These all seem
like desirable properties of a voting system. Yet Arrow proved, mathematically and incontrovertibly, that no voting system can satisfy all these properties. This amazing result is called Arrow’s impossibility theorem.

ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION – асимметричная информация
Asymmetric information is a type of market failure where buyers and
sellers do not have equal access to information, usually resulting in an
underallocation of resources to the production of goods and services, as
parties to a transaction with less access to information try to protect themselves against the consequences of the information asymmetry.

AVERAGE FIXED COST – средние постоянные затраты
Average fixed cost is the fixed cost divided by the quantity of output.

AVERAGE REVENUE – средняя выручка
Average revenue is total revenue divided by the quantity sold. Average
revenue tells us how much revenue a firm receives for the typical unit
sold.

AVERAGE TAX RATE – средняя ставка налогообложения, средняя
налоговая ставка
An average tax rate is total taxes paid divided by total income.
When discussing the efficiency and equity of income taxes, economists
distinguish between two notions of the tax rate: the average and the marginal. The average tax rate is total taxes paid divided by total income. The
marginal tax rate is the extra taxes paid on an additional dollar of income.

AVERAGE TOTAL COST – средние валовые затраты
Average total cost is total cost divided by the quantity of output.
To find the cost of the typical unit produced, we would divide the firm’s
costs by the quantity of output it produces. For example, if the firm produces 2 cups of coffee per hour, its total cost is $3.80, and the cost of the
typical cup is $3.80/2, or $1.90. Total cost divided by the quantity of output is called average total cost.

AVERAGE VARIABLE COST – средние переменные издержки
Average variable cost is the variable cost divided by the quantity of output.

AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS – автоматические стабилизаторы
Automatic stabilisers are changes in fiscal policy that stimulate aggregate demand when the economy goes into a recession without policymakers having to take any deliberate action; they are factors that automatically, without any action by government authorities, work toward stabilising
the economy by reducing the short term fluctuations of the business cycle.
Two important automatic stabilizers are progressive income taxes and unemployment benefits.

AVERAGE COSTS – удельная стоимость единицы продукции; средние затраты в длительном периоде; средние издержки
Average costs are costs per unit of output, or the cost of each unit of output on average. They are calculated by dividing total cost by the number
of units of output produced.

AVERAGE FIXED COSTS – средние постоянные затраты
Average fixed costs are fixed cost per unit of output, or the fixed cost of
each unit of output on average. They are calculated by dividing fixed cost
by the number of units of output produced.

AVERAGE PRODUCT – усреднённый продукт; средний продукт
Average product is the total quantity of output of a firm per unit of variable input (such as labour); shows how much output each unit of the variable input (for example, each worker) produces on average.

AVERAGE REVENUE – средняя выручка
Average revenue is revenue per unit of output sold, calculated by dividing total revenue by the number of units of output produced.

AVERAGE TAX RATE – средняя ставка налогообложения
Average tax rate is tax paid divided by total income, expressed as a percentage (i.e. tax paid divided by total income multiplied by 100).

AVERAGE TOTAL COSTS – средние совокупные издержки
Average total costs are total cost per unit of output, or the total cost of
each unit of output on average. They are calculated by dividing total costs
by the number of units of output; they are also equal to the sum of average
fixed costs and average variable costs.

AVERAGE VARIABLE COSTS – средние переменные издержки
Average variable costs are variable cost per unit of output, or the variable cost of each unit of output on average. They are calculated by dividing
variable cost by the number of units of output.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS – равновесие платежного баланса
Balance of payments is a record (usually for a year) of all transactions
between the residents of a country and the residents of all other countries,
showing all payments received from other countries (credits), and all
payments made to other countries (debits). In the course of a year, the sum
of all the credits must be equal to the sum of all the debits.

BALANCE OF TRADE IN GOODS – сальдо торгового баланса
Balance of trade in goods is part of the balance of payments, it is the
value of exports of goods minus the value of imports of goods over a specific period of time (usually a year).

BALANCE OF TRADE IN SERVICES – сальдо внешней торговли
услугами

Balance of trade in services is part of the balance of payments, it is the
value of exports of services minus the value of imports of services over
a specific period of time (usually a year).

BALANCE ON CAPITAL ACCOUNT – баланс движения капиталов
Balance on capital account is the sum of inflows minus outflows of
funds in the capital account of the balance of payments.

BALANCE ON CURRENT ACCOUNT – платёжный баланс по текущим операциям; остаток на текущем счёте
Balance on current account is the sum of inflows minus outflows of
funds in the current account of the balance of payments.

BALANCED BUDGET – сбалансированный бюджет
Balanced budget – the term refers usually to the government’s budget, it
is the situation where government tax revenues are equal to government
expenditures over a specific period of time (usually a year).

BALANCED TRADE – нетто-баланс внешней торговли (торговый
баланс, в котором объём экспорта равен объёму импорта)
Balanced trade a situation in which exports equal imports. If net exports
are zero, its exports and imports are exactly equal, and the country is said
to have balanced trade.

BARRIERS TO ENTRY – барьеры входа; барьеры для доступа
(ограничения по проникновению на рынок новых производителей)
Barriers to entry refers to anything that can prevent a firm from entering
an industry and beginning production, as a result limiting the degree of
competition in the industry.

BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS – бихевиористская экономика, поведенческая экономика
Behavioral economics is the subfield of economics that integrates the
insights of psychology.
Economics is a study of human behavior, but it is not the only field that
can make that claim. The social science of psychology also sheds light on
the choices that people make in their lives. The fields of economics and
psychology usually proceed independently, in part because they address

a different range of questions. But recently, a field called behavioral
economics has emerged in which economists are making use of basic
psychological insights.

BENEFITS PRINCIPLE – принцип полезности
Benefits principle is the idea that people should pay taxes based on the
benefits they receive from government services.
One principle of taxation, called the benefits principle, states that people
should pay taxes based on the benefits they receive from government services. This principle tries to make public goods similar to private goods.
It seems fair that a person who often goes to the movies pays more in total
for movie tickets than a person who rarely goes. Similarly, a person who
gets great benefit from a public good should pay more for it than a person
who gets little benefit.

BILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT – двустороннее торговое
соглашение
Bilateral trade agreement is any trade agreement (or agreement to lower
international trade barriers) involving two trading partners, usually two
countries. It may also involve a trade agreement between one country and
another group of countries when this groups acts as a single unit (such as
the European Union). It may be contrasted with regional trade agreement
and multilateral trade agreement.

BOND – облигация, обеспеченная материальными активами
A bond is a certificate of indebtedness that specifies the obligations of the
borrower to the holder of the bond. It identifies the time at which the loan
will be repaid, called the date of maturity, and the rate of interest that will
be paid periodically until the loan matures. The buyer of a bond gives his or
her money in exchange for this promise of interest and eventual repayment
of the amount borrowed (called the principal). The buyer can hold the bond
until maturity or can sell the bond at an earlier date to someone else.

BREAK-EVEN POINT – точка безубыточности; порог рентабельности
Break-even point is the point of production of a firm where its total revenue is exactly equal to its total costs (economic costs), and it is therefore
earning normal profit, or zero economic (supernormal) profit.

BREAK-EVEN PRICE – безубыточная продажа; безубыточная цена;
цена безубыточности
Break-even price is a price at which the firm breaks even, meaning that
its total revenues are just equal to its total costs (economic costs); at the
break-even price the firm is earning zero economic (supernormal) profit,
but it is earning normal profit.

BUDGET CONSTRAINT – бюджетное ограничение
Budget constraint is the limit on the consumption bundles that a consumer can afford.

BUDGET DEFICIT – дефицит бюджета, превышение правительственных расходов над доходами
Budget deficit is an excess of government spending over government receipts, a shortfall of tax revenue from government spending; the term refers usually to the government’s budget, it is the situation where government tax revenues are less than government expenditures over a specific
period of time (usually a year).
The government finances a budget deficit by borrowing from the public.
That is, it sells government debt to the private sector.

BUDGET SURPLUS – профицит бюджета; бюджетные излишки
Budget surplus is an excess of government receipts over government
spending; the term refers usually to the government’s budget, it is the situation where government tax revenues are greater than government expenditures over a specific period of time (usually a year)..
When receipts exceed spending, the government is said to run a budget
surplus. When the government runs a budget surplus, it uses the excess
receipts to reduce its outstanding debts.

BUSINESS CONFIDENCE – индекс доверия в деловых кругах
Business confidence is a measure of the degree of optimism among firms
in an economy about the future performance of firms and the economy; it
is measured on the basis of surveys of business managers. Is an important
determinant of the investment component of aggregate demand.

BUSINESS CYCLE – цикличность; цикл деловой активности; экономический цикл
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle,
is (1) the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product
(GDP) around its long-term growth trend; (2) fluctuations in economic
activity, such as employment and production. Business cycle refers
to fluctuations in the growth of real output, or real GDP, consisting of alternating periods of expansion (increasing real output) and contraction
(decreasing real output); also known as trade cycles.

CAP AND TRADE SCHEME – политика ограничения промышленных выбросов с помощью квот
Cap and trade scheme is a scheme in which a government authority (of a
single country or a group of countries) sets a limit or ‘cap’ on the amount of
pollutants that can be legally emitted by a firm, set by an amount of pollution permits (known as tradable permits) distributed to firms; firms that
want to pollute more than their permits allow can buy more permits in a
market, while firms that want to pollute less can sell their excess permits.

CAPITAL – основной капитал; акционерный капитал; фонды;
относящийся к основному капиталу; капитал
Capital is the equipment and structures used to produce goods and services; it is one of the factors of production, which itself has been produced
(it does not occur naturally), also known as ‘physical capital’, including
machinery, tools, equipment, buildings, etc. Physical capital is also referred
to as a ‘capital good’ or ‘investment good’. Other types of capital include
‘human capital’, or the skills, abilities, knowledge and levels of good health
acquired by people; ‘natural capital’, or everything that traditionally has
been included in the factor of production ‘land’; and ‘financial capital’,
or purchases of financial instruments such as stocks and bonds. The defi-

nition of capital is somewhat tricky. Economists use the term capital to
refer to the stock of equipment and structures used for production. That is,
the economy’s capital represents the accumulation of goods produced
in the past that are being used in the present to produce new goods and
services. For the apple firm, for example, the capital stock includes
the ladders used to climb the trees, the trucks used to transport the apples,
the buildings used to store the apples, and even the trees themselves.

CAPITAL ACCOUNT – счёт движения капиталов; счёт капитальных
активов; счёт накоплений; капитальный счёт
Capital account: in the balance of payments, it refers to the inflows minus outflows of funds for (i) capital transfers’ (including such things as
debt forgiveness and non-life insurance claims), and (ii) the purchase or
use of non-produced natural resources (such as mineral rights, forestry
rights, fishing rights and airspace); it is a relatively unimportant part of the
balance of payments.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURES – капиталовложение; инвестиции
Capital expenditures: with reference to government expenditures, these
include public investments, or the production of physical capital, such as
building roads, airports, harbours, school buildings, hospitals, etc.

CAPITAL FLIGHT – отток капитала; утечка капитала
Capital flight is a large and sudden reduction in the demand for assets
located in a country.
A large and sudden movement of funds out of a country is called capital
flight.

CAPITAL LIBERALISATION – либерализация капитала
Capital liberalisation refers to the free movement of financial capital
in and out of a country, occurring through the elimination by the government of exchange controls (government restrictions on the quantity
of foreign exchange that can be bought by domestic residents of
a country).

CAPITAL TRANSFERS – движение капитала; перевод капитала;
перемещение капитала

Capital transfers: a part of the capital account of the balance of payments, they include inflows minus outflows for such things as debt
forgiveness, non-life insurance claims, and investment.

CARBON TAX – налог за выбросы углерода
Carbon tax is a tax per unit of carbon emissions of fossil fuels, considered by many countries as a policy to deal with the problem of climate
change.

CARTEL – объединение предпринимателей; картель; соглашение,
заключаемое несколькими независящими друг от друга предприятиями с целью ограничения или ликвидации риска конкуренции
A cartel is a group of firms acting in unison. Once a cartel is formed, the
market is in effect served by a monopoly. A cartel must agree not only on
the total level of production but also on the amount produced by each
member. It is a formal agreement between firms in an industry to undertake concerted actions to limit competition; is formed in connection with
collusive oligopoly. It may involve fixing the quantity to be produced
by each firm, or fixing the price at which output can be sold, and other
actions. The objective is to increase the monopoly power of the firms
in the cartel. Cartels are illegal in many countries.

CATCH-UP EFFECT – эффект «подхвата»; концепция, предполагающая, что, поскольку более бедные экономики, как правило, растут
быстрее, чем более богатые экономики, все экономики во времени
будут сходиться с точки зрения дохода на душу населения. Другими
словами, более бедные страны буквально «догонят» более устойчивые экономики. Догоняющий эффект также упоминается как теория
сходимости
Catch-up effect is the property whereby countries that start off poor tend
to grow more rapidly than countries that start off rich. Other things equal,
it is easier for a country to grow fast if it starts out relatively poor. This
effect of initial conditions on subsequent growth is sometimes called the
catch-up effect. In poor countries, workers lack even the most rudimentary
tools and, as a result, have low productivity. Small amounts of capital
investment would substantially raise these workers’ productivity.

CENTRAL BANK – центральный банк (принадлежащий государству
или контролируемый государством банк, занимается эмиссией денег,
нередко хранит и распоряжается международными резервами и имеет пассив в форме бессрочных вкладов других банков и часто правительства данной страны)

Central bank is a financial institution that is responsible for regulating
the country’s financial system and commercial banks, and carrying out
monetary policy.

CETERIS PARIBUS – при прочих равных условиях
Ceteris paribus is a Latin expression that means ‘other things being
equal’. Another way of saying this is that all other things are assumed to
be constant or unchanging. It is used in economics theories and models to
isolate changes in only those variables that are being studied.

CIRCULAR FLOW OF INCOME – кругооборот доходов
Circular flow of income model is a model showing the flow of resources
from consumers (households) to firms, and the flow of products from
firms to consumers, as well as money flows consisting of consumers’ income arising from the sale of their resources and firms’ revenues arising
from the sale of their products. It illustrates the equivalence of expenditure
flows, value of output flows, and income flows.

CIRCULAR-FLOW DIAGRAM – круговая диаграмма
The circular-flow diagram is (or circular-flow model) is a graphical
representation of the flows of goods and money between two distinct parts
of the economy.

The circular-flow diagram is a visual model of the economy that shows
how dollars flow through markets among households and firms. In this
model, the economy is simplified to include only two types of decision
makers – firms and households. Firms produce goods and services using
inputs, such as labor, land, and capital (buildings and machines). These
inputs are called the factors of production. Households own the factors of
production and consume all the goods and services that the firms produce.
The circular-flow diagram is a schematic representation of the organization
of the economy. Decisions are made by households and firms. Households
and firms interact in the markets for goods and services (where households
are buyers and firms are sellers) and in the markets for the factors of production (where firms are buyers and households are sellers).

CLEAN TECHNOLOGY – экологически чистые технологии
Clean technology is a technology that is not polluting, associated with
environmental sustainability; includes solar power, wind power, hydropower, recycling, and many more.

CLOSED ECONOMY – закрытая экономика; экономика, не имеющая внешних связей
Closed economy is an economy that does not interact with other economies in the world and has no international trade (no imports and exports);
usually appears in connection with economic theories and models as virtually no economy in the real world is a closed economy. For most questions in macroeconomics, international issues are peripheral. For instance,
when the natural rate of unemployment and the causes of inflation are

discussed, the effects of international trade could safely be ignored.
Indeed, to keep their models simple, macroeconomists often assume
a closed economy – an economy that does not interact with other economies. To be contrasted with open economy.

CLUB GOODS – клубные блага; коллективные товары или услуги
Club goods (also artificially scarce goods) are goods that are excludable
but not rival in consumption.
For instance, consider fire protection in a small town. It is easy to exclude
someone from using this good: the fire department can just let his house
burn down. Yet fire protection is not rival in consumption. Once a town
has paid for the fire department, the additional cost of protecting one more
house is small.

COASE THEOREM – теорема Коуза
The Coase theorem is the proposition that if private parties can bargain
without cost over the allocation of resources, they can solve the problem
of externalities on their own.
How effective is the private market in dealing with externalities? A famous result, called the Coase theorem after economist Ronald Coase,
suggests that it can be very effective in some circumstances. According

to the Coase theorem, if private parties can bargain over the allocation of
resources at no cost, then the private market will always solve the problem
of externalities and allocate resources efficiently.

COLLECTIVE BARGAINING – переговоры о заключении коллективного договора между профсоюзами и нанимателями; ведение
переговоров о заключении коллективных трудовых договоров
Collective bargaining is the process by which unions and firms agree on
the terms of employment.

COLLUSION – сговор; ценовой сговор; тайный сговор; соглашение
между клиентами
Collusion is an agreement among firms in a market about quantities to
produce or prices to charge. It is an agreement among firms to fix prices,
or divide the market between them, so as to limit competition and maximise profit; usually involves firms in oligopoly.

COLLUSIVE OLIGOPOLY – олигополия, поддерживаемая посредством сговора
Collusive oligopoly refers to the type of oligopoly where firms agree
to restrict output or fix the price, in order to limit competition, increase
monopoly power and increase profits.

COMMERCIAL BANK – коммерческий банк
Commercial bank is a financial institution (which may be private or public) whose main functions are to hold deposits for their customers (consumers and firms), to make loans to their customers, to transfer funds by
cheque (check) from one bank to another, and to buy government bonds.

COMMON ACCESS RESOURCES – общедоступный ресурс
Common access resources are resources that are not owned by anyone,
do not have a price, and are available for anyone to use without payment
(for example, lakes, rivers, fish in the open seas, open grazing land, the
ozone layer and many more); their depletion or degradation leads to environmental unsustainability.

COMMON MARKET – общий рынок
Common market is a type of trading bloc in which countries that have
formed a customs union proceed further to eliminate any remaining tariffs
in trade between them; they continue to have a common external policy
(as in a customs union), and in addition agree to eliminate all restrictions
on movements of any factors of production within them; factors affected
are mainly labour and capital, which are free to cross all borders and
move, travel and find employment freely within all member countries.
The best-known common market is the European Economic Community
(EEC, the precursor of the present European Union).

COMMON RESOURCES – общие ресурсы; совместно используемые
ресурсы
Common resources are goods that are rival in consumption but not
excludable.
For example, fish in the ocean are rival in consumption: when one person
catches fish, there are fewer fish for the next person to catch. Yet these
fish are not an excludable good because, given the vast size of an ocean,
it is difficult to stop fishermen from taking fish out of it.

COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE – относительное преимущество;
сравнительное преимущество

Comparative advantage is the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer. It arises when a country has a lower relative
cost, or opportunity cost, in the production of a good than another country.
Economists use the term comparative advantage when describing the opportunity cost of two producers. It forms the basis of the theory of comparative advantage.

COMPENSATING DIFFERENTIAL – компенсирующая надбавка
Economists use the term compensating differential to refer to a difference in wages that arises from nonmonetary characteristics of different
jobs. Compensating differentials are prevalent in the economy. Here are
some examples:
• Coal miners are paid more than other workers with similar levels of education. Their higher wage compensates them for the dirty and dangerous
nature of coal mining, as well as the long-term health problems that coal
miners experience.
• Workers who work the night shift at factories are paid more than similar
workers who work the day shift. The higher wage compensates them for
having to work at night and sleep during the day, a lifestyle that most
people find undesirable.
• Professors are paid less than lawyers and doctors, who have similar
amounts of education. Professors’ lower wages compensate them for the
great intellectual and personal satisfaction that their jobs offer.

COMPETITION – конкуренция
Competition occurs when there are many buyers and sellers acting independently, so that no one has the ability to influence the price at which the
product is sold in the market.

COMPETITIVE MARKET – конкурентный рынок; рынок свободной
конкуренции; свободный рынок
Competitive market is a market composed of many buyers and sellers
acting independently, none of whom has any ability to influence the price
of the product (i.e. no market power).
Each seller of ice cream has limited control over the price because other
sellers are offering similar products. A seller has little reason to charge
less than the going price, and if he or she charges more, buyers will make
their purchases elsewhere. Similarly, no single buyer of ice cream can influence the price of ice cream because each buyer purchases only a small
amount.
A competitive market, sometimes called a perfectly competitive market,
has two characteristics:
• There are many buyers and many sellers in the market.
• The goods offered by the various sellers are largely the same.
As a result of these conditions, the actions of any single buyer or seller in
the market have a negligible impact on the market price. Each buyer and
seller takes the market price as given.

COMPETITIVE SUPPLY – предложение со стороны конкурентов;
конкурентоспособное предложение
Competitive supply: in the case of two goods, it refers to production of
one or the other by a firm; in other words the two goods compete with
each other for the same resources (for example, if a farmer can produce
wheat or corn, producing more of one means producing less of the other).

COMPLEMENT(S) – товар-дополнитель; дополняющий фактор
производства
Complements (complementary goods) are two or more goods that tend
to be used together; they are goods for which an increase in the price of
one leads to a decrease in the demand for the other.
When a fall in the price of one good raises the demand for another good,
the two goods are called complements. Complements are often pairs of
goods that are used together, such as gasoline and automobiles, computers
and software, and peanut butter and jelly.

COMPOSITE INDICATOR – комбинированный показатель
Composite indicator is a summary measure of more than one indicator, often used to measure economic development; for example

the Human Development Index (HDI), that measures income, education and health indicators.

COMPOUNDING – капитализация; компаундинг; начисление сложного процента
Compounding is the accumulation of a sum of money in, say, a bank account, where the interest earned remains in the account to earn additional
interest in the future.

CONCENTRATION RATIO – показатель концентрации
Concentration ratio A measure of how much an industry’s production is
concentrated among the industry’s largest firms; it measures the percentage of output produced by the largest firms in an industry, and is used to
provide an indication of the degree of competition or degree of monopoly
power in an industry. The higher the ratio, the greater the degree of monopoly power.

CONCESSIONAL LOAN – льготная ссуда; кредит на льготных
условиях
Concessional loans are loans that are offered as part of foreign aid, made
on concessional terms, i.e. that they are offered at interest rates that are
lower than commercial rates, with longer repayment periods.

CONDITIONAL ASSISTANCE – обусловленная обстоятельствами
помощь
Conditional assistance refers to development assistance provided by
bilateral or multilateral development organisations, which is extended
to countries on condition that they satisfy certain requirements, usually
requiring that they adopt particular policies.

CONDORCET PARADOX (voting paradox) – парадокс Кондорсе;
парадокс теории общественного выбора
The Condorcet paradox is the failure of majority rule to produce transitive preferences for society. Suppose the mayor then asks voters to choose
between A and C. In this case, voter types 2 and 3 vote for C, giving C the
majority. That is, under pairwise majority voting, A beats B, B beats C,
and C beats A. Normally, we expect preferences to exhibit a property

called transitivity: If A is preferred to B, and B is preferred to C, then we
would expect A to be preferred to C. The Condorcet paradox is that democratic outcomes do not always obey this property. One implication of
the Condorcet paradox is that the order in which things are voted on can
affect the result. If the mayor suggests choosing first between A and B and
then comparing the winner to C, the town ends up choosing C. But if the
voters choose first between B and C and then compare the winner to A,
the town ends up with A. And if the voters choose first between A and C
and then compare the winner to B, the town ends up with B.

CONSTANT RETURNS TO SCALE – постоянное увеличение в зависимости от масштаба; неизменный эффект масштаба
Constant returns to scale is the property whereby long-run average total
cost stays the same as the quantity of output changes. When long-run average total cost does not vary with the level of output, there are said to be
constant returns to scale. The term refers to the situation where the output
of a firm changes in the same proportion as all its inputs; given a percentage increase in all inputs, output increases by the same percentage.
May be contrasted with increasing returns to scale and decreasing returns
to scale.

CONSUMER CONFIDENCE – потребительское доверие
Consumer confidence is a measure of the degree of optimism of consumers about their future income and the future of the economy;

it is measured on the basis of surveys consumers. Is an important determinant of the consumption component of aggregate demand.

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX (CPI) – индекс цен на потребительские
товары
Consumer price index is a measure of the overall cost of the goods and
services bought by a typical consumer; it is a measure of the cost of living
for the typical household; it compares the value of a basket of goods and
services in one year with the value of the same basket in a base year.
Inflation and deflation are measured as a percentage change in the value
of the basket from one year to another.

CONSUMER SURPLUS – излишек потребителя; дополнительная
выгода для потребителя
Consumer surplus is the amount a buyer is willing to pay for a good minus the amount the buyer actually pays for it; it refers to the difference
between the highest prices consumers are willing to pay for a good and
the price actually paid. Consumer surplus measures the benefit buyers receive from participating in a market. For example, John receives a $20
benefit from participating in the auction because he pays only $80
for a good he values at $100. Paul, George, and Ringo get no consumer
surplus from participating in the auction because they left without the album and without paying anything.

CONSUMPTION – потребление; потребительская активность
Consumption is spending by households (consumers) on goods and services, with the exception of purchases of new housing. Goods include
household spending on durable goods, such as automobiles and appliances, and nondurable goods, such as food and clothing. Services include
such intangible items as haircuts and medical care. Household spending
on education is also included in consumption of services.

CONTRACTIONARY FISCAL POLICY – жесткая финансово-кредитная политика; жёсткая фискальная политика
Contractionary fiscal policy refers to fiscal policy usually pursued in an
inflation, involving a decrease in government spending or an increase
in taxes (or both). May be contrasted with expansionary fiscal policy.

CONTRACTIONARY MONETARY POLICY – меры сдерживающего воздействия на рост денежной массы; политика сокращения
денежной массы
Contractionary monetary policy refers to monetary policy usually pursued in an inflation, involving an increase in interest rates, intended to
lower investment and consumption spending; also known as ‘tight monetary policy’. May be contrasted with expansionery monetary policy.

CORE RATE OF INFLATION – стержневой темп инфляции
Core rate of inflation is a rate of inflation based on a consumer price
index that excludes goods with highly volatile (unstable) prices, notably
food and energy prices.

CORPORATE INDEBTEDNESS – корпоративная задолженность
Corporate indebtedness. The degree to which corporations have debts.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY – корпоративная социальная ответственность
Corporate social responsibility is the practice of some corporations to
avoid socially undesirable activities, such as polluting activities, employing children, or employing workers under unhealthy conditions; as well as
undertaking socially desirable activities, such as support for human rights
and donations to charities.

CORRECTIVE TAX – корректирующий налог
A corrective tax is a tax designed to induce private decision makers to
take account of the social costs that arise from a negative externality. Instead of regulating behavior in response to an externality, the government
can use market-based policies to align private incentives with social efficiency. For instance, the government can internalize the externality by
taxing activities that have negative externalities and subsidizing activities
that have positive externalities. Taxes enacted to deal with the effects of
negative externalities are called corrective taxes. They are also called
Pigovian taxes after economist Arthur Pigou (1877–1959), an early advocate of their use. An ideal corrective tax would equal the external cost from
an activity with negative externalities, and an ideal corrective subsidy
would equal the external benefit from an activity with positive externalities.

COST – стоимость; затраты
Cost is the value of everything a seller must give up to produce a good.

COST–BENEFIT ANALYSIS – анализ экономического эффекта
инвестиций
A cost–benefit analysis a study that compares the costs and benefits to
society of providing a public good.
Suppose that the government is considering a public project, such as building
a new highway. To judge whether to build the highway, it must compare the
total benefits of all those who would use it to the costs of building and maintaining it. To make this decision, the government might hire a team of economists and engineers to conduct a study, called a cost–benefit analysis,
to estimate the total costs and benefits of the project to society as a whole.

COST-PUSH INFLATION – затратная инфляция; инфляция издержек
Cost-push inflation is a type of inflation caused by a fall in aggregate
supply, in turn resulting from increases in costs of production (for example, wages or prices of other inputs).

COSTS OF PRODUCTION – затраты на производство; издержки
производства; себестоимость
Costs of production is the total opportunity costs incurred by firms
in order to acquire resources for use in production; include explicit costs
(for purchased resources) and implicit costs (for self-owned resources).

CREDIT ITEMS – кредитовая запись; кредитовая проводка; кредитовая статья; статья баланса пассивная
Credit items: in the balance of payments, they refer to payments received
from other countries, entering the balance of payments accounts with
a plus sign; they represent an inflow of foreign exchange into a country.

CROSS-PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND (XED) – перекрёстная
эластичность спроса по цене
Cross-price elasticity of demand (XED) is a measure of the responsiveness of the demand for one good to a change in the price of another good;
measured by the percentage change in the quantity of one good demanded
divided by the percentage change in the price of another good. If XED > 0
the two goods are substitutes; if XED < 0, the two goods are complements. It is a measure of how much the quantity demanded of one good
responds to a change in the price of another good, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded of the first good divided by the percentage change in the price of the second good. The cross-price elasticity
of demand measures how the quantity demanded of one good responds to
a change in the price of another good. It is calculated as the percentage
change in quantity demanded of good 1 divided by the percentage change
in the price of good 2.

CROWDING OUT – замещение частных инвестиций государственными расходами; вытеснение частных инвестиций государственными
расходами
Crowding out refers to the possible impacts on real GDP of increased
government spending (expansionary fiscal policy) financed by borrowing;
if increased government borrowing results in a higher rate of interest, this
could reduce private investment spending, thus reversing the impacts of
the government’s expansionary fiscal policy. It is a decrease in investment
that results from government borrowing. The fall in investment because of
government borrowing is called crowding out. When the government borrows to finance its budget deficit, it crowds out private borrowers who are
trying to finance investment.

CROWDING-OUT EFFECT – эффект вытеснения (частных инвестиций вследствие роста государственных расходов)
Crowding-out effect is the offset in aggregate demand that results when
expansionary fiscal policy raises the interest rate and thereby reduces investment spending.
The multiplier effect seems to suggest that when, e.g., the US government
buys $20 billion of planes from Boeing, the resulting expansion in aggregate demand is necessarily larger than $20 billion. Yet another effect
works in the opposite direction. While an increase in government purchases stimulates the aggregate demand for goods and services, it also
causes the interest rate to rise, which reduces investment spending and

puts downward pressure on aggregate demand. The reduction in aggregate
demand that results when a fiscal expansion raises the interest rate
is called the crowding-out effect.

CURRENT ACCOUNT – счёт текущих операций; текущий банковский счёт
Current account: in the balance of payments, this includes the balance of
trade (recording exports minus imports of goods) plus the balance on services (recording exports of services minus imports of services), plus
inflows minus outflows of income and current transfers. The most important part of the current account in most countries is the balance
of trade.

CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT – дефицит текущего счета; дефицит счета текущих операций
Current account deficit occurs when the current account balance has
a negative value, meaning that debits are larger than credits (there is an
excess of debits).

CURRENT ACCOUNT SURPLUS – профицит счета текущих
операций
Current account surplus occurs when the current account balance has
a positive value, meaning that credits are larger than debits (there is an
excess of credits).

CURRENT EXPENDITURES – текущие расходы
Current expenditures: in the government budget, the term refers to government spending on day-to-day items that are recurring (i.e. repeat themselves) and items that are used up or ‘consumed’ as a good or service
is provided. Include wages and salaries (for all government employees);
spending for supplies and equipment for the day-to-day operation of
government activities (for example, school supplies and medical supplies
for public schools and public health care services); provision of subsidies;
and interest payments on government loans.

CURRENT TRANSFERS – текущие трансферты
Current transfer(s) is an item in the current account of the balance of
payments, refers to inflows and outflows of funds for items including
gifts, foreign aid, and pensions.

CUSTOMS UNION – таможенный союз
Customs union is a type of trading bloc, consisting of a group of countries that fulfill the requirements of a free trade area (elimination of trade
barriers between members) and in addition adopt a common policy towards all non-member countries; members of a customs union also act as
a group in all trade negotiations and agreements with non-members.
It achieves a higher degree of economic integration than a free trade area,
but lower than a common market.

CYCLICAL UNEMPLOYMENT – циклическая безработица
Cyclical unemployment is a type of unemployment that occurs during
the downturns of the business cycle, when the economy is in a recessionary gap; the downturn is seen as arising from declining or low aggregate
demand, and therefore is also known as ‘demand-deficient’ unemployment. Cyclical unemployment is deviation of unemployment from its natural rate. The normal rate of unemployment around which the unemployment rate fluctuates is called the natural rate of unemployment, and
the deviation of unemployment from its natural rate is called cyclical
unemployment.

DEADWEIGHT LOSS – чистые издержки монополии, потеря
мёртвого груза
The fall in total surplus that results when a tax (or some other policy)
distorts a market outcome is called the deadweight loss.

DEBIT ITEMS – дебетовая запись; дебетовая проводка; дебетовая
статья; статья баланса активная
Debit items: in the balance of payments, the term refers to payments
made to other countries, entering the balance of payments accounts with
a minus sign; they represent an outflow of foreign exchange from
a country.

DECILE(S) – десятка
Deciles: the term refers to division of a population into ten equal groups
with respect to the distribution of a variable, such as income; for example,
the lowest income decile refers to 10 % of the population with the lowest
income.

DECREASING RETURNS TO SCALE – сокращение доходности отдачи, выпуска продукции при росте масштабов экономической деятельности, несмотря на рост масштабов экономической деятельности
Decreasing returns to scale: the term refers to the situation where
the output of a firm changes less than in proportion to a change in all
its inputs; given a percentage increase in all inputs, output increases by
a smaller percentage. May be contrasted with constant returns to scale and
increasing returns to scale.

DEFICIT – дефицит (дебетовое/отрицательное сальдо на счёте
накопленной нераспределённой чистой прибыли)
Deficit: in general, this is the deficiency of something compared with something else. (I) In the balance of payments, a deficit in an account occurs
when the credits (inflows of money from abroad) are smaller than the debits
(outflows of money to other countries); for example, a deficit in the balance
of trade means that the value of exports (credits) is smaller than the value of
imports (debits). (II) In the case of the government budget, a deficit occurs
when government revenues are smaller than government expenditures.

DEFLATION – спад деловой активности; дефлятирование (перевод
показателей, рассчитанных в текущих ценах, в показатели, выраженные в постоянных ценах)
Deflation is a continuing (or sustained) decrease in the general price level.

DEMAND – спрос; предъявление требования
Demand indicates the various quantities of a good that consumers (or a
consumer) are willing and able to buy at different possible prices during
a particular time period, ceteris paribus (all other things being equal).

DEMAND CURVE – кривая спроса
Demand curve is a graph of the relationship between the price of a good
and the quantity demanded; it is a curve (downward-sloping line) showing
the relationship between the quantities of a good consumers (or a consumer) are willing and able to buy during a particular time period, and their
respective prices, ceteris paribus (all other things being equal).

DEMAND MANAGEMENT – контроль и регулирование спроса
Demand management refers to policies that focus on the demand side of
the economy, attempting to influence aggregate demand to achieve the
goals of price stability, full employment and economic growth.

DEMAND SCHEDULE – шкала спроса, график спроса
The demand schedule is a table that shows the relationship between the
price of a good and the quantity demanded, holding constant everything
else that influences how much of the good consumers want to buy.

DEMAND-PULL INFLATION – инфляция, вызванная избыточным
спросом на товары и услуги
Demand-pull inflation is a type of inflation caused by an increase in aggregate demand.

DEMAND-SIDE POLICIES – политика стимулирования спроса
Demand-side policies are policies that attempt to change aggregate demand in order to achieve the goals of price stability, full employment and
economic growth, and minimise the severity of the business cycle. In the
event of an inflationary or recessionary (deflationary) gap, they try to
bring aggregate demand to the full employment level of real GDP, or potential GDP. They can also impact on economic growth by contributing to
increases in potential GDP. To be contrasted with supply-side policies.

DEMERIT GOODS – неодобряемые блага; товары, не пользующиеся
спросом
Demerit goods are goods that are considered to be undesirable for consumers and are overprovided by the market. Reasons for overprovision
may be that the goods have negative externalities, or consumer ignorance
about the harmful effects.

DEPRECIATION – девальвация; обесценивание
Depreciation is a decrease in the value of a currency as measured by the
amount of foreign currency it can buy.
If the exchange rate changes so that a dollar buys more foreign currency,
that change is called an appreciation of the dollar. If the exchange rate
changes so that a dollar buys less foreign currency, that change is called
a depreciation of the dollar.

DEPRECIATION (OF A CURRENCY) – обесценивание валюты
Depreciation (of a currency) refers to a decrease in the value of a currency in the context of a floating (or flexible) exchange rate system or
managed exchange rate system (to be compared with devaluation, which
is a decrease in currency value in a fixed exchange rate system). Depreciation is a decrease in the value of a currency as measured by the amount
of foreign currency it can buy. If the exchange rate changes so that a dollar buys more foreign currency, that change is called an appreciation of
the dollar. If the exchange rate changes so that a dollar buys less foreign
currency, that change is called a depreciation of the dollar.
Depreciation also refers to capital goods that become worn out and are
discarded.

DEPRESSION / RECESSION – кризис; спад экономического роста;
спад производства; депрессия
In some years, however, the economy experiences contraction rather
than growth. Firms find themselves unable to sell all the goods and services they have to offer, so they cut back on production. Workers are
laid off, unemployment rises, and factories are left idle. With the economy producing fewer goods and services, real GDP and other measures
of income fall. Such a period of falling incomes and rising unemployment is called a recession if it is relatively mild and a depression if it is
more severe.

DEREGULATION – дерегулирование; сокращение объёма вмешательства государства в экономику; уменьшение государственного
вмешательства в экономику
Deregulation refers to policies involving the elimination or reduction
of government regulation of private sector activities, based on the argument that government regulation stifles competition and increases
inefficiency.

DETERIORATION IN THE TERMS OF TRADE – ухудшение
условий торговли
Deterioration in the terms of trade is a decrease in the value of the
terms of trade index.

DETERMINANTS OF AGGREGATE DEMAND – основные факторы совокупного спроса
Determinants of aggregate demand are factors that cause shifts of the
aggregate demand curve; include factors that influence consumption
spending, investment spending, government spending and net exports.

DEVALUATION (OF A CURRENCY) – девальвация валюты; обесценивание валюты
Devaluation (of a currency) refers to a decrease in the value of a currency in the context of a fixed exchange rate system (to be compared with
depreciation, which is a decrease in currency value in the context of
a floating (or flexible) or managed exchange rate system).

DEVELOPMENT AID – помощь в целях развития
Development aid is foreign aid intended to help economically less developed countries; may involve project aid, programme aid, technical assistance or debt relief.

DIMINISHING MARGINAL PRODUCT – убывающий предельный
продукт
Diminishing marginal product is the property whereby the marginal
product of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases. Notice
that as the number of workers increases, the marginal product of labor
declines. That is, the production process exhibits diminishing marginal
product. At first, when only a few workers are hired, they can pick the
low-hanging fruit. As the number of workers increases, additional workers
have to climb higher up the ladders to find apples to pick. Hence, as more
and more workers are hired, each additional worker contributes less to the
production of apples.

DIMINISHING RETURNS – убывающая доходность; сокращающийся доход
In economics, diminishing returns is the decrease in the marginal (incremental) output of a production process as the amount of a single factor
of production is incrementally increased, while the amounts of all other
factors of production stay constant.
Diminishing returns is the property whereby the benefit from an extra unit
of an input declines as the quantity of the input increases. The traditional

view of the production process is that capital is subject to diminishing returns: As the stock of capital rises, the extra output produced from an additional unit of capital falls. In other words, when workers already have a
large quantity of capital to use in producing goods and services, giving them
an additional unit of capital increases their productivity only slightly.

DIRECT INVESTMENT – прямое инвестирование; прямые капиталовложения
Direct investment: in the balance of payments, it refers to inflows or outflows of funds for the purpose of foreign direct investment.

DIRECT TAXES – прямые налоги
Direct taxes are taxes paid directly to the government tax authorities by
the taxpayer, including personal income taxes, corporate income taxes and
wealth taxes.

DISCOURAGED WORKER – человек, переставший искать работу
(форма скрытой безработицы)
Discouraged workers are individuals who would like to work but have
given up looking for a job. These individuals may have tried to find a job
and may have given up after an unsuccessful search. Such individuals,
called discouraged workers, do not show up in unemployment statistics,
even though they are truly workers without jobs.

DISCRIMINATION – дискриминация; разграничение; предоставление особых льгот (преимущественных прав); установление различий
Discrimination is the offering of different opportunities to similar individuals who differ only by race, ethnic group, sex, age, or other personal
characteristics.
Discrimination reflects some people’s prejudice against certain groups in
society. Discrimination is an emotionally charged topic that often generates heated debate, but economists try to study the topic objectively to
separate myth from reality.

DISECONOMIES OF SCALE – рост издержек по мере расширения
объёма производства, потери от масштаба
Diseconomies of scale is the property whereby long-run average total cost
rises as the quantity of output increases. When long-run average total cost

rises as output increases, there are said to be diseconomies of scale. Thus,
diseconomies of scale are increases in the average costs of production that
occur as a firm increases its output by varying all its inputs (i.e. in the
long run). Diseconomies of scale are responsible for the upwardsloping
part of the long-run average total cost curve: as a firm increases its size,
costs per unit of output increase.

DISINFLATION – дефляция; замедление темпов инфляции
Disinflation refers to a fall in the rate of inflation; it involves a positive
rate of inflation.

DISPOSABLE INCOME – окончательная сумма дохода (без налогов, сборов и процентов); доход после уплаты налогов и сборов;
конечный доход
Disposable income is the income of consumers that is left over after
the payment of income taxes.

DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME – распределение доходов
Distribution of income is concerned with how much of an economy’s
total income different individuals or different groups in the population
receive, and involves answering the ‘for whom’ basic economic question.

DIVERSIFICATION – диверсификация; создание многоотраслевой
экономики
Diversification is the reduction of risk achieved by replacing a single risk
with a large number of smaller, unrelated risks. Diversification is the process of allocating capital in a way that reduces the exposure to any one
particular asset or risk. A common path towards diversification is to reduce risk or volatility by investing in a variety of assets. There is one
piece of practical advice that finance offers to risk-averse people: “Don’t
put all your eggs in one basket.” Finance has turned this folk wisdom into
a science. It goes by the name diversification. Diversification generally
refers to change involving greater variety, and is used to refer to increasing the variety of goods and services produced and/or exported by a country; it is the opposite of specialisation.

DOMINANT STRATEGY – доминирующая стратегия; преобладающая стратегия
Dominant strategy is a strategy that is best for a player to follow in
a game regardless of the strategies chosen by the other players.

DUAL ECONOMY – двойственная экономика
Dual economy arises when there are two different and opposing sets of
circumstances that exist simultaneously, often found in economically less
developed countries, such as for example, wealthy, highly educated
groups coexisting with poor, illiterate groups, a formal and informal urban
sector, and a low-productivity agricultural sector and a high-productivity
urban industrial sector.

DUMPING – демпинг; предложение крупного пакета ценных бумаг
по низким ценам; вывоз товаров по бросовым ценам; искусственное
занижение цен
Dumping is the practice of selling a good in international markets at
a price that is below the cost of producing it (usually by providing export
subsidies); while it is illegal according to international trade rules, many
countries practice it anyway. Forms the basis of the anti-dumping argument in favour of trade protection.

ECONOMIC COSTS – экономические издержки; оптимальные издержки; оптимальные затраты
Economic costs: the term refers to the sum of explicit costs and implicit
costs, or the total opportunity costs incurred by a firm for its use of resources, whether purchased or self-owned.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT – рост экономики
Economic development refers to broad-based rises in the standard of living and well-being of a population, particularly in economically less developed countries. It involves increasing income levels and reducing poverty, reducing income inequalities and unemployment, and increasing
provision of and access to basic goods and services such as food and shelter, sanitation, education and health care services.

ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY – экономическая эффективность; экономическая целесообразность; экономичный коэффициент полезного
действия
Economic efficiency is a condition that arises when allocative efficiency
is achieved.

ECONOMIC GROWTH – экономический рост; экономическое развитие
Economic growth refers to increases in total real output produced by an
economy (real GDP) over time; may also refer to increases in real output
(real GDP) per capita (or per person).

ECONOMIC INTEGRATION – экономическая интеграция
Economic integration refers to economic interdependence between
countries, usually achieved by agreement between countries to reduce or
eliminate trade and other barriers between them. There are various
degrees of integration, depending on the type of agreement and the degree
to which barriers between countries are removed.

ECONOMIC PROFIT – экономическая прибыль
Economic profit is a firm’s total revenue minus total economic costs
(explicit plus implicit). If economic profit is positive, the firm is earning
supernormal (abnormal) profit; if it is zero, the firm is earning normal
profit; if it is negative, the firm is making a loss. Because economists and
accountants measure costs differently, they also measure profit differently.
An economist measures a firm’s economic profit as the firm’s total revenue minus all the opportunity costs (explicit and implicit) of producing the
goods and services sold. An accountant measures the firm’s accounting
profit as the firm’s total revenue minus only the firm’s explicit costs.

ECONOMICALLY LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES – экономически менее развитые страны
Economically less developed countries: according to the World Bank’s
classification system, the list includes countries that have a per capital

GNI below a particular level (which changes from year to year); some
common characteristics include low levels of GDP per capita, high levels
of poverty, large agricultural sectors and large urban informal sectors
(though it is dangerous to generalise about these characteristics).

ECONOMICALLY MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES – экономически более развитые страны
Economically more developed countries: according to the World Bank’s
classification system, the list includes countries that have a per capital
GNI above a particular level (which changes from year to year); they generally have relatively high levels of GDP per capita, relatively low levels
of poverty, small agricultural sectors, and large industrial and services
sectors (though it is dangerous to generalise about these characteristics).
The study of choices leading to the best possible use of scarce resources
in order to best satisfy unlimited human needs and wants.

ECONOMICS – экономика (учебная и научная дисциплина); экономическая теория
Economics is the study of how society manages its scarce resources.
In most societies, resources are allocated not by an all-powerful dictator

but through the combined actions of millions of households and firms.
Economists therefore study how people make decisions: how much they
work, what they buy, how much they save, and how they invest their
savings. Economists also study how people interact with one another. For
instance, they examine how the multitude of buyers and sellers of a good
together determine the price at which the good is sold and the quantity that
is sold. Finally, economists analyze forces and trends that affect the economy as a whole, including the growth in average income, the fraction of the
population that cannot find work, and the rate at which prices are rising.

ECONOMIES OF SCALE – экономия за счёт расширения производства; экономия от масштаба; удешевление за счёт объёма операций,
производства и т. п.
Economies of scale is the property whereby long-run average total cost
falls as the quantity of output increases. The term refers to decreases in the
average costs of production that occur as a firm increases its output by
varying all its inputs (i.e. in the long run). Economies of scale explain the
downward-sloping portion of the long-run average total cost curve: as
a firm increases its size, the costs per unit of output fall.

EFFICIENCY – высокий организационно-технический уровень;
результативность; экономическая эффективность
Efficiency is the property of a resource allocation of maximizing the total
surplus received by all members of society. Efficiency means that society

is getting the maximum benefits from its scarce resources. Total surplus
in a market is the total value to buyers of the goods, as measured by
their willingness to pay, minus the total cost to sellers of providing those
goods. If an allocation of resources maximizes total surplus, we say that
the allocation exhibits efficiency. If an allocation is not efficient, then
some of the potential gains from trade among buyers and sellers are not
being realized.

EFFICIENCY WAGES – сдельная заработная плата; эффективная
ставка заработной платы
Efficiency wages are above-equilibrium wages paid by firms to increase
worker productivity.
The theory of efficiency wages holds that a firm can find it profitable to
pay high wages because doing so increases the productivity of its workers.
In particular, high wages may reduce worker turnover, increase worker
effort, and raise the quality of workers who apply for jobs at the firm.
Therefore, it may be profitable for firms to keep wages high even in the
presence of a surplus of labor.

EFFICIENT MARKETS HYPOTHESIS – гипотеза об эффективном
рынке
Efficient markets hypothesis is the theory that asset prices reflect all
publicly available information about the value of an asset.

EFFICIENT SCALE – экономически эффективный масштаб
Efficient scale is the quantity of output that minimizes average total cost.

ELASTICITY – эластичность
Elasticity is a measure of the responsiveness of quantity demanded or
quantity supplied to a change in one of its determinants / this is a measure
of the responsiveness or sensitivity of a variable to changes in any of the
variable’s determinants. Specific elasticities include price elasticity of
demand, cross-price elasticity of demand, income elasticity of demand,
price elasticity of supply.

EMPOWERMENT – предоставление более широких возможностей;
расширение возможностей
Empowerment is creation of conditions for equality of opportunities; involves increasing the political, social, and economic power of individuals
or groups of individuals.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP – предпринимательство
Entrepreneurship is one of the factors of production, involving a special
human skill that includes the ability to innovate by developing new ways
of doing things, to take business risks and to seek new opportunities for
opening and running a business. Entrepreneurship organises the other
three factors of production (land, labour and capital) and takes on the risks
of success or failure of a business.

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EQUALITY – равенство, соразмерность
Equality is the property of distributing economic prosperity uniformly
among the members of society. Equality means that those benefits are
distributed uniformly among society’s members. In other words, efficiency refers to the size of the economic pie, and equality refers to how the pie
is divided into individual slices.
In addition to efficiency, the social planner might also care about equality –
that is, whether the various buyers and sellers in the market have a similar
level of economic well-being. In essence, the gains from trade in a market
are like a pie to be shared among the market participants. The question
of efficiency concerns whether the pie is as big as possible. The question
of equality concerns how the pie is sliced and how the portions are distributed among members of society.

EQUILIBRIUM – равновесие платежного баланса
Equilibrium is a situation in which the market price has reached the level
at which quantity supplied equals quantity demanded; it is a state of balance such that there is no tendency to change.

EQUILIBRIUM LEVEL OF OUTPUT – уровень равновесия
производства
Equilibrium level of output is the level of output (real GDP) where the
aggregate demand curve intersects the aggregate supply curve (also
known as the ‘equilibrium level of income’).

EQUILIBRIUM PRICE – уравновешенная цена; уравновешивающая
цена; равновесная цена
Equilibrium price is the price determined in a market when quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied, and there is no tendency for the price
to change; it is the price that prevails when there is market equilibrium;
is the price that balances quantity supplied and quantity demanded. At the
equilibrium price, the quantity of the good that buyers are willing and able
to buy exactly balances the quantity that sellers are willing and able to sell.
The equilibrium price is sometimes called the market-clearing price because, at this price, everyone in the market has been satisfied: buyers have
bought all they want to buy, and sellers have sold all they want to sell.

EQUILIBRIUM QUANTITY – равновесный объём; равновесное
количество товара
Equilibrium quantity is the quantity that is bought and sold when a market
is in equilibrium, i.e. when quantity demanded is equal to quantity supplied; it
is the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded at the equilibrium price.

EQUITY – справедливость; беспристрастность
Equity is the condition of being fair or just; should be contrasted with the
term equality. Often used in connection with income distribution, in which

case it is usually interpreted to mean income equality (though this is only
one possible interpretation of equity).

ERRORS AND OMISSIONS – ошибки и упущения
Errors and omissions: in the balance of payments, the term refers to
an item that is included to account for possible omissions and errors
in items that have been included or excluded, in order to ensure that the
balance of payments balances, i.e. that the sum of credits and debits
is equal to zero.

EXCESS DEMAND – избыточный спрос; чрезмерный спрос
Excess demand: in the context of demand and supply, it occurs when the
quantity of a good demanded is greater than the quantity supplied, leading
to a shortage of the good.

EXCESS SUPPLY – избыточное предложение; чрезмерное предложение
Excess supply: in the context of demand and supply, it occurs when the
quantity of a good demanded is smaller than the quantity supplied, leading
to a surplus.

EXCHANGE RATE – обменный курс валют
Exchange rate is the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for
another, or the number of units of foreign currency that correspond to the
domestic currency; can be thought of as the ‘price’ of a currency, which is
expressed in terms of another currency.

EXCISE TAXES – акцизные сборы; акцизный сбор; акциз
Excise taxes are taxes imposed on spending on particular goods or services (for example, gasoline/petrol); are a type of indirect tax.

EXCLUDABILITY – исключаемость
Excludability is the property of a good whereby a person can be prevented
from using it.

EXCLUDABLE – подлежащий исключению
Excludable is a characteristic of goods according to which it is possible to
exclude people from using the good by charging a price for it; if someone
is unwilling or unable to pay the price they will be excluded from using it.
Most goods are excludable. It is one of the two characteristics of ‘private
goods’.

EXPANSIONARY FISCAL POLICY – политика расширения бюджетных расходов; расширительная фискальная политика
Expansionary fiscal policy refers to fiscal policy usually pursued in
a recession, involving an increase in government spending or a decrease
in taxes (or both). May be contrasted with contractionary fiscal policy.

EXPANSIONARY MONETARY POLICY – стимулирующая монетарная политика
Expansionary monetary policy refers to monetary policy usually pursued in a recession, involving a decrease in interest rates, intended to increase investment and consumption spending; also known as ‘easy monetary policy’. May be contrasted with contractionery monetary policy.

EXPENDITURE APPROACH – метод конечного использования
расчёта ВВП/ВНД, т. е. по расходам; метод расходов
Expenditure approach is a method used to measure the value of aggregate output of an economy, which adds up all spending on final goods and
services produced within a country within a given time period. As suggested by the circular flow model, it is equivalent to measurement by the
income approach and the output approach.

EXPENDITURE FLOW – поток расходов
Expenditure flow: in the simple circular flow of income model, it is the
flow of spending from households to firms to buy the goods and services
produced by the firms; the expenditure flow is equal to the income flow
and the value of output flow.

EXPENDITURE-REDUCING POLICIES – политика сокращения
расходов
Expenditure-reducing policies are policies that involve reducing
expenditures in the domestic economy so as to bring about a decrease
in imports in order to correct a current account deficit; they include
contractionary fiscal and monetary policies.

EXPENDITURE-SWITCHING POLICIES – политика переключения спроса
Expenditure-switching policies are policies that involve switching consumption away from imported goods and towards domestically produced
goods, in order to correct a current account deficit; include trade protection policies and depreciation.

EXPLICIT COSTS – денежные затраты; внешние издержки
Explicit costs are costs of production that involve a money payment by
a firm to an outsider in order to acquire a factor of production that is not
owned by the firm. Is a type of opportunity cost; should be contrasted with
implicit costs; they are input costs that require an outlay of money by the
firm. While some of a firm’s opportunity costs of production are obvious,
others are less so. When Caroline pays $1,000 for flour, that $1,000 is an
opportunity cost because Caroline can no longer use that $1,000 to buy
something else. Similarly, when Caroline hires workers to make the cook-

ies, the wages she pays are part of the firm’s costs. Because these opportunity costs require the firm to pay out some money, they are called
explicit costs.

EXPORT PROMOTION – стимулирование экспорта
Export promotion refers to a growth and trade strategy where a country
attempts to achieve economic growth by expanding its exports. As a trade
strategy, it looks outward towards foreign markets and is based on stronger links between the domestic and global economies. To be contrasted
with import substitution.

EXPORTS – экспорт; экспортные товары; экспортные услуги; экспортные поставки
Exports are domestically produced goods and services that are sold abroad.

EXTERNALITY – внешний эффект; экзогенный фактор – выгода
или ущерб от экономической деятельности для третьих лиц без оплаты или возмещения
Externality is the impact of one person’s actions on the well-being of
a bystander.
One possible cause of market failure is an externality, which is the impact
of one person’s actions on the well-being of a bystander. Externality is the
uncompensated impact of one person’s actions on the well-being of a bystander. Externality occurs when the actions of consumers or producers
give rise to positive or negative side-effects on other people who are not
part of these actions, and whose interests are not taken into consideration.
Positive externalities give rise to positive side-effects; negative externalities to negative side-effects.

FREE RIDER – безбилетный пассажир, «заяц», халявщик; лицо,
бесплатно получающее блага
A free rider is a person who receives the benefit of a good but does not
pay for it.
Because people would have an incentive to be free riders rather than ticket
buyers, the market would fail to provide the efficient outcome.

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION – средства производства; движущая
сила производства
Factors of production are the inputs used to produce goods and services.
Labor, land, and capital are the three most important factors of production.
When a computer firm produces a new software program, it uses programmers’ time (labor), the physical space on which its offices are located
(land), and an office building and computer equipment (capital). Similarly, when a gas station sells gas, it uses attendants’ time (labor), the physical space (land), and the gas tanks and pumps (capital).

FIXED COSTS – фиксированные издержки; фиксированные затраты
Fixed costs are costs that do not vary with the quantity of output
produced.
They are incurred even if the firm produces nothing at all.

FINANCE – финансы; финансовая теория
Finance is the field that studies how people make decisions regarding the
allocation of resources over time and the handling of risk.
The sphere of finance develops the tools that help us understand the decisions that people make as they participate in financial markets in great
detail. The financial system is so important to the functioning of the economy, that many of the basic insights of finance are central to understanding how the economy works.

FISCAL POLICY – финансовая политика; бюджетно-налоговая
политика
Fiscal policy is the setting of the level of government spending and taxation by government policymakers.
The government can influence the behavior of the economy not only with
monetary policy but also with fiscal policy. Fiscal policy refers to the

government’s choices regarding the overall level of government purchases
and taxes. The primary effect of fiscal policy is on the aggregate demand
for goods and services.

FINANCIAL SYSTEM – финансовая система
Financial system is the group of institutions in the economy that help to match
one person’s saving with another person’s investment. Saving and investment
are key ingredients to long-run economic growth: when a country saves
a large portion of its GDP, more resources are available for investment in capital, and higher capital raises a country’s productivity and living standard.

FINANCIAL MARKET – финансовый рынок; рынок денег; рынок
ценных бумаг
Financial markets are the institutions through which a person who wants
to save can directly supply funds to a person who wants to borrow.
The two most important financial markets in our economy are the bond
market and the stock market.

FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARIES – финансовые посредники; кредитно-финансовые учреждения
Financial intermediaries are financial institutions through which savers
can indirectly provide funds to borrowers. The term intermediary reflects
the role of these institutions in standing between savers and borrowers.
Two intermediaries are considered as the most important financial intermediaries: banks and mutual funds.

FUTURE VALUE – будущая приведённая стоимость (противоположным является present value – текущая стоимость)
Future value is the amount of money in the future that an amount of
money today will yield, given prevailing interest rates.

FIRM-SPECIFIC RISK – риск конкретной компании
Firm-specific risk is a risk that affects only a single company. It is impossible to eliminate all risk by increasing the number of stocks in the
portfolio. Diversification can eliminate firm-specific risk – the uncertainty
associated with the specific companies.

FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS – фундаментальный анализ; всесторонний анализ
Fundamental analysis the study of a company’s accounting statements
and future prospects to determine its value. Determining the value of the
business is the hard part. The term fundamental analysis refers to the
detailed analysis of a company to estimate its value.

FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT – фрикционная безработица
(временная незанятость, связанная с переходом с одной работы на
другую)
Frictional unemployment is unemployment that results because it takes
time for workers to search for the jobs that best suit their tastes and skills.
The unemployment that results from the process of matching workers and
jobs is called frictional unemployment, and it is often thought to explain
relatively short spells of unemployment.

FACTOR ENDOWMENTS – совокупность факторов производства;
обеспеченность ресурсами; запас факторов производства
Factor endowments are the factors of production that a country is ‘endowed with’, or possesses. Differing factor endowments among countries
suggests that different countries are better suited to the production of certain kinds of goods and services than others, or, to put it differently, they
are more efficient in the production of some things rather than others.
Differing factor endowments form the basis of the theory of comparative
advantage.

FACTORS OF PRODUCTION – средства производства
Factors of production are all resources, or inputs (land, labour, capital,
entrepreneurship) used to produce goods and services.

FINANCIAL ACCOUNT – финансовый счёт
Financial account: in the balance of payments, it refers to inflows minus
outflows of funds due to foreign direct investment, portfolio investment
and changes in reserve assets.

FISCAL POLICY – финансовая политика; бюджетная политика
Fiscal policy embraces manipulations by the government of its own expenditures and taxes in order to influence the level of aggregate demand;
it is a type of demand side policy or demand management.

FIXED COSTS – фиксированные издержки
Fixed costs are costs that arise from the use of fixed inputs, which do not
change as output increases or decreases (hence they are ‘fixed’). Fixed
costs arise only in the short run, or the period of time when there is at least
one fixed input. Examples include rental payments, property taxes and
insurance premiums.

FIXED EXCHANGE RATE – фиксированный валютный курс
Fixed exchange rate refers to an exchange rate that is fixed by the central
bank of a country, and is not permitted to change in response to changes in
currency supply and demand. Maintaining the value of a currency at its
fixed rate requires constant intervention by the central bank or government.

FIXED EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM – система фиксированного
валютного курса
Fixed exchange rate system is an exchange rate system where exchange
rates are fixed by the central bank of each country.

FOREIGN AID – иностранная экономическая помощь; помощь другим государствам
Foreign aid consists of concessional financial flows from the developed
world to economically less developed countries, and includes concessional loans and grants.

FOREIGN DEBT – внешний долг
Foreign debt refers to external debt, meaning the total amount of debt
(public and private) incurred by borrowing from foreign creditors
(i.e. lenders). The global problem of debt involves large volumes of public
(i.e. government) debt.

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) – прямые иностранные
инвестиции
Foreign direct investment (FDI) refers to investment by firms based in one
country (the home country) in productive activities in another country (the
host country). Firms that undertake FDI are called multinational corporations.

FOREIGN EXCHANGE – обмен иностранной валюты; валютный резерв
Foreign exchange refers to foreign national currencies, i.e. for any country, it refers to currencies other than its own.

FORMAL COLLUSION – формальный сговор
Formal collusion is an agreement between firms (usually in oligopoly)
to limit output or fix prices, in order to restrict competition; is likely
to involve the formation of a cartel. Also known as ‘open collusion’.

FREE ENTRY AND EXIT – свободный вход и выход
Free entry and exit is the condition in which firms face no barriers
to entering or exiting an industry, characteristic of the market structures
of perfect competition and monopolistic competition.

FREE RIDER PROBLEM – проблема безбилетника
Free rider problem occurs when people can enjoy the use of a good
without paying for it, and arises from non-excludability: people cannot
be excluded from using the good, because it is not possible to charge
a price. Is often associated with public goods, which are a type of market
failure: due to the free rider problem, private firms fail to produce these
goods.

FREE TRADE – свобода торговли; свободная торговля; фритредерство
Free trade is the absence of government intervention of any kind in international trade, so that trade takes place without any restrictions (or barriers) between individuals or firms in different countries.

FREE TRADE AREA – свободная экономическая зона; зона свободной торговли
Free trade area is a type of trading bloc, consisting of a group of countries that agree to eliminate trade barriers between themselves; it is the
most common type of integration area, and involves a lower degree of
economic integration than a customs union or common market. Each
member country retains the right to pursue its own trade policy towards
nonmember countries.

FREELY FLOATING EXCHANGE RATE – свободно плавающий
обменный курс
Freely floating exchange rate is an exchange rate determined entirely by
market forces, or the forces of supply and demand. There is no govern-

ment intervention in the foreign exchange market to influence the value of
the exchange rate. Also known as floating exchange rate or flexible
exchange rate.

FREELY FLOATING EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM – система свободно плавающего обменного курса
Freely floating exchange rate system is an exchange rate system where
exchange rates are determined entirely by market forces.

FRICTIONAL UNEMPLOYMENT – фрикционная безработица;
временная безработица, вызванная переподготовкой рабочих; переходная безработица
Frictional unemployment is a type of unemployment that occurs when
workers are between jobs; workers may leave their job because they have
been fired, or because their employer went out of business, or because
they are in search of a better job, or they may be waiting to begin a new
job; tends to be short term.

FULL EMPLOYMENT – полная занятость; эффективная занятость
Full employment: (I) In the context of the production possibilities model,
it refers to maximum use of all resources in the economy to produce
the maximum quantity of goods and services that the economy is capable
of producing (production possibilities), implying zero unemployment.
(II) In the context of the AD–AS (Aggregate Demand – Aggregate Supply)
model, it refers to the natural rate of unemployment, or unemployment
that prevails when the economy is producing potential output, or real
GDP, determined by the position of the LRAS curve (when the economy is
in long equilibrium).

FULL EMPLOYMENT LEVEL OF OUTPUT (REAL GDP) –
реальный объём производства при полной занятости
Full employment level of output (real GDP) is the level of output
(or real GDP) at which unemployment is equal to the natural rate of unemployment; the level of output (real GDP) where there is no deflationary
or recessionary gap.

GAME THEORY – теория игр
Game theory is a mathematical technique analyzing the behaviour of decision-makers who are dependent on each other, and who use strategic
behaviour as they try to anticipate the behaviour of their rivals. It has
become an important tool in microeconomics, often used to analyse the
behaviour of oligopolistic firms; is based heavily on the work of American mathematician and economist John Nash. Game theory is the study of
how people behave in strategic situations. “Strategic” means a situation in
which a person, when choosing among alternative courses of action, must
consider how others might respond to the action he takes. Strategic thinking is crucial not only in checkers, chess, and tic-tac-toe but in many business decisions. Because oligopolistic markets have only a small number of
firms, each firm must act strategically. Each firm knows that its profit depends not only on how much it produces but also on how much the other
firms produce. In making its production decision, each firm in an oligopoly should consider how its decision might affect the production decisions
of all the other firms.

GDP DEFLATOR – дефлятор ВВП
GDP deflator a measure of the price level calculated as the ratio of nominal GDP to real GDP times 100.

Nominal GDP reflects both the quantities of goods and services the economy is producing and the prices of those goods and services. By contrast,
by holding prices constant at base-year levels, real GDP reflects only the
quantities produced. From these two statistics, we can compute a third,
called the GDP deflator, which reflects only the prices of goods and services. Because nominal GDP and real GDP must be the same in the base
year, the GDP deflator for the base year always equals 100. The GDP deflator for subsequent years measures the change in nominal GDP from the
base year that cannot be attributable to a change in real GDP.

GDP PER CAPITA – ВВП на душу населения
GDP per capita: Gross domestic product divided by the number of people
in the population; is an indicator of the amount of domestic output per
person in the population.

GIFFEN GOOD(S) – товары, потребление которых растёт при повышении цен (согласно «парадоксу Гиффена»)

Giffen good is a good for which an increase in the price raises the quantity demanded. Economists use the term Giffen good to describe a good that
violates the law of demand. The term is named for economist Robert Giffen, who first noted this possibility. Giffen goods are inferior goods for
which the income effect dominates the substitution effect.

GINI COEFFICIENT – индекс/коэффициент Джини; количественный показатель, показывающий степень неравенства распределения
доходов; статистический показатель степени расслоения общества
Gini coefficient is a summary measure of the information contained in the
Lorenz curve of an economy, defined as the area between the diagonal
and the Lorenz curve, divided by the entire area under the diagonal. The
Gini coefficient has a value between 0 and 1; the larger the Gini coefficient, and the closer it is to 1, the greater is the income inequality.

GNI PER CAPITA – валовой национальный доход на душу населения
GNI per capita is gross national income divided by the number of people
in the population; is an indicator of the amount of income in an economy
per person in the population.

GOVERNANCE – управление на самых высоких уровнях организации; направляющее воздействие; регулирование; властные полномочия; регулирующая система
Governance refers to the way of governing, and the exercise of power in
the management of an economy’s economic and social resources, in order
to achieve particular objectives such as economic growth and development.

GOVERNMENT BUDGET – правительственное финансирование;
государственный бюджет
Government budget is a type of plan of a country’s tax revenues and
government expenditures over a period of time (usually a year).

GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION – вмешательство государства
Government intervention is the practice of government to intervene
(interfere) in markets, preventing the free functioning of the market, usually for the purpose of achieving particular economic or social objectives.

GOVERNMENT PURCHASES – государственные закупки
Government purchases include spending on goods and services by local,
state, and federal governments. It includes the salaries of government
workers as well as expenditures on public works.

GOVERNMENT SPENDING – бюджетные расходы; правительственные расходы
Government spending is spending undertaken by the government, as part
of its fiscal policy or as part of an effort to meet particular economic and
social objectives (such as provision of subsidies, provision of public
goods, etc.).

GRANT – грант; безвозмездная субсидия
Grant is a type of (foreign) aid consisting of funds that are in effect gifts
(they do not have to be repaid).

GREEN GDP – экологические показатели ВВП
Green GDP is gross domestic product (GDP) which has been adjusted to
take into account environmental destruction and/or health consequences of
environmental problems.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) – валовый национальный
продукт; внутренний валовой продукт (ВВП)
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and
services produced within a country in a given period of time. It is a measure of the value of aggregate output of an economy, it is the market value
of all final goods and services produced within a country during a given

time period (usually a year); it is a commonly used measure of the value
of aggregate output; to be contrasted with gross national income (GNI).

GROSS NATIONAL INCOME (GNI) – валовый национальный доход
Gross national income (GNI) is a measure of the total income received
by the residents of a country, equal to the value of all final goods and services produced by the factors of production supplied by the country’s residents regardless of where the factors are located; GNI = GDP plus income
from abroad minus income sent abroad. Formerly known as gross national
product (GNP); may be contrasted with gross domestic product (GDP).

GROWTH MAXIMISATION – максимизация роста
Growth maximisation is a possible goal of firms that differs from the
goal of profit maximisation assumed by standard microeconomic theory,
involving the achievement of the highest possible growth, for various reasons such as achieving economies of scale, diversifying, achieving market
power, or others.

HIDDEN UNEMPLOYMENT – скрытая безработица
Hidden unemployment is unemployment that is not counted in official
unemployment statistics because of such factors as the exclusion of ‘discouraged workers’, the practice of considering part-time workers as fulltime workers, and others.

HOMOGENEOUS PRODUCT – однородная продукция
Homogeneous product is a product that is completely standardised and
not differentiated; is characteristic of products in perfect competition.

HORIZONTAL EQUITY – горизонтальное равенство
Horizontal equity is the idea that taxpayers with similar abilities to pay
taxes should pay the same amount (see also vertical equity).
Two corollary notions of equity (horizontal and vertical) are widely accepted, but applying them to evaluate a tax system is rarely straightforward.

HOUSEHOLD INDEBTEDNESS – задолженность домохозяйства/
семейства
Household indebtedness is the degree to which households have debts.

HUMAN CAPITAL – человеческий капитал, человеческие ресурсы
(способности и трудовые, навыки, приложение которых приносит
доход)
Human capital is the economist’s term for the knowledge and skills that
workers acquire through education, training, and experience. Human capital
includes the skills accumulated in early childhood programs, grade school,
high school, college, and on-the-job training for adults in the labor force.
It is the accumulation of investments in people. The most important type of
human capital is education. Like all forms of capital, education represents
an expenditure of resources at one time to raise productivity in the future.
But unlike an investment in other forms of capital, an investment in education is tied to a specific person, and this linkage is what makes it human
capital. Human capital is a type of capital that, while less tangible than
physical capital, is just as important to the economy’s production.

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) – индекс человеческого
развития (рейтинг ООН, характеризующий уровень жизни в различных странах)
Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite indicator of development which includes indicators that measure three dimensions of development: income per capita, levels of health and educational attainment;
is considered to be a better indicator of development than single indicators
such as GNI per capita.

HUMANITARIAN AID – гуманитарная помощь
Humanitarian aid is foreign aid extended in regions where there are
emergencies caused by violent conflicts or natural disasters such as
floods, earthquakes and tsunamis, intended to save lives, ensure access to
basic necessities such as food, water, shelter and health care, and provide
assistance with reconstruction.

IMPLICIT COSTS – вменённые издержки; неявные затраты
Implicit costs are input costs that do not require an outlay of money by
the firm; they are costs of production involving sacrificed income arising
from the use of self-owned resources by a firm; they refer to the type of
opportunity cost; should be contrasted with explicit costs.

IMPORT SUBSTITUTION – импортозамещение
Import substitution is also known as import-substituting industrialisation,
and refers to a growth and trade strategy where a country begins to manufacture simple consumer goods oriented towards the domestic market (such
as shoes, textiles, beverages, electrical appliances) in order to promote its
domestic industry; it presupposes the imposition of protective measures
(tariffs, quotas, etc.) that will prevent the entry of imports that compete with
domestic producers. To be contrasted with export promotion.

IMPORTS – ввозимые или ввезенные товары; импорт; импортируемые товары
Imports are foreign-produced goods and services that are sold domestically. When Boeing, the U.S. aircraft manufacturer, builds a plane and
sells it to Air France, the sale is an export for the United States and an import for France. When Volvo, the Swedish car manufacturer, makes a car
and sells it to a U.S. resident, the sale is an import for the United States
and an export for Sweden.

IMPROVEMENT IN THE TERMS OF TRADE – улучшение
условий торговли
Improvement in the terms of trade is an increase in the value of the
terms of trade index.
INCENTIVE(S) – стимул; мотивация; вознаграждение
An incentive is something that induces a person to act, such as the prospect of a punishment or a reward. Because rational people make decisions by comparing costs and benefits, they respond to incentives. Incentives play a central role in the study of economics. Incentives are crucial
to analyzing how markets work. For example, when the price of an apple
rises, people decide to eat fewer apples. At the same time, apple orchards
decide to hire more workers and harvest more apples. In other words,
a higher price in a market provides an incentive for buyers to consume
less and an incentive for sellers to produce more. As we will see,

the influence of prices on the behavior of consumers and producers is
crucial for how a market economy allocates scarce resources.

INCENTIVE-RELATED POLICIES – политика в отношении стимулов
Incentive-related policies are policies involving reduction of various types
of taxes (such as income taxes and business taxes), in the expectation that
the tax cuts will change the incentives faced by taxpayers; for example, cuts
in income taxes may encourage the desire to work; cuts in business taxes
may encourage investment. Are a type of supply-side policy.

INCOME – валовая выручка (за отчётный период); прибыль; доход
Income: in the current account of the balance of payments, income refers
to inflows of wages, rents, interest and profits earned abroad minus the
same income factors that are sent abroad.

INCOME APPROACH – метод определения доходов
Income approach is a method used to measure the value of aggregate output of an economy, which adds up all income earned by the factors of production in the course of producing all goods and services within a country
in a given time period. As suggested by the circular flow model, it is equivalent to measurement by the expenditure approach and the output approach.

INCOME EFFECT – эффект дохода (влияние изменений в доходах
на спрос)
An income effect is the change in consumption that results when a price
change moves the consumer to a higher or lower indifference curve.

INCOME ELASTIC DEMAND – эластичный спрос по доходу
Income elastic demand is relatively high responsiveness of demand to
changes in income.

INCOME ELASTICITY OF DEMAND – эластичность спроса от
доходов; эластичность спроса по доходу потребителей; быстрое
реагирование спроса на изменения дохода
Income elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of demand to changes in income; measured by the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in price; it is a measure of
how much the quantity demanded of a good responds to a change in consumers’ income, computed as the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income.

INCOME FLOW – поток дохода
Income flow: in the simple circular flow of income model, it refers to the
flow of income of households that they receive by selling their factors of
production (resources) to firms; the income flow is equal to the expenditure flow and the value of output flow.

INCOME INELASTIC DEMAND – неэластичный спрос по доходу
Income inelastic demand is relatively low responsiveness of demand to
changes in income.

INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE – возрастающая отдача от
масштаба
Increasing returns to scale refers to the situation where the output of
a firm changes more than in proportion to a change in all its inputs; given
a percentage increase in all inputs, output increases by a larger percentage.
May be contrasted with constant returns to scale and decreasing returns to
scale.

INDEBTEDNESS – задолженность
Indebtedness refers to the level of debt, or the amount of money owed to
creditors (lenders); may be on a household, firm, or country level.

INDEXATION – индексация; соотнесение платежей по контрактам
и обязательствам с индексом цен
Indexation is the automatic correction by law or contract of a dollar
amount for the effects of inflation. Price indexes are used to correct for the
effects of inflation when comparing dollar figures from different times.
This type of correction shows up in many places in the economy. When
some dollar amount is automatically corrected for changes in the price
level by law or contract, the amount is said to be indexed for inflation.

INDIFFERENCE CURVE – кривая безразличия
An indifference curve is a curve that shows consumption bundles that
give the consumer the same level of satisfaction. An indifference curve
shows the various bundles of consumption that
make the consumer equally happy.

INDIRECT TAXES – косвенные налоги
Indirect taxes are taxes levied on spending to buy goods and services,
called indirect because, whereas payment of some or all of the tax by
the consumer is involved, they are paid to the government authorities by
the suppliers (firms), that is, indirectly.

INDUSTRIAL POLICIES – промышленная политика
Industrial policies are government policies designed to support the
growth of the industrial sector of an economy; may include support for
small and medium-sized firms or support for ‘infant industries’ through
tax cuts, grants, low interest loans and other measures, as well as invest-

ment in human capital, research and development, or infrastructure development in support of industry.

INFANT INDUSTRY – неокрепшая отрасль промышленности (нуждающаяся в субсидиях)
Infant industry is a new domestic industry that has not had time to establish itself and achieve efficiencies in production, and may therefore
be unable to compete with more ‘mature’ competitor firms from abroad.
The presence of infant industries is considered to be one of the strongest
arguments in favour of trade protection policies in developing countries.

INFERIOR GOOD(S) – товар низкого качества; низкосортный товар
Not all goods are normal goods. If the demand for a good rises when income falls, the good is called an inferior good. An example of an inferior
good might be bus rides. As your income falls, you are less likely to buy a
car or take a taxi and more likely to ride a bus. The inferior good is a good
the demand for which varies negatively (or indirectly) with income; this
means that as income increases, the demand for the good decreases; it is
a good for which, other things equal, an increase in income leads to
a decrease in demand.

INFLATION – инфляция; обесценивание денег
Inflation is a continuing (or sustained) increase in the general price level;
it is an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy.

INFLATION RATE – темп инфляции
Inflation rate is the percentage change in the price index from the preceding period.

INFLATION TARGETING – установление пределов инфляции; целевое регулирование инфляции
Inflation targeting is a type of monetary policy carried out by some central banks that focuses on achieving a particular inflation target, rather
than focusing on the goals of low and stable rate of inflation and low unemployment; common inflation targets are between 1.5 % and 2.5 %.

INFLATIONARY GAP – инфляционный разрыв (превышение совокупного спроса над совокупным предложением)
Inflationary gap is a situation where real GDP is greater than potential
GDP, and unemployment is lower than the natural rate of unemployment;
it arises when the AD curve intersects the SRAS curve at a higher level of
real GDP than potential GDP.

INFRASTRUCTURE – инфраструктура
Infrastructure refers to numerous types of physical capital resulting from
investments, making major contributions to economic growth and development by lowering costs of production and increasing productivity;
include power, telecommunications, piped water supplies, sanitation,
roads, major dam and canal works for irrigation and drainage, urban
transport, ports and airports.

INJECTIONS – (финансовое) вложение
Injections: in the circular flow of income model, they refer to the entry
into income flow of funds corresponding to investment, government
spending or exports.

IN-KIND TRANSFERS – пособия натурой (необеспеченным семьям
из государственных средств)
Through various government programs, however, the poor receive many
nonmonetary items, including food stamps, housing vouchers, and medical services. Transfers to the poor given in the form of goods and services
rather than cash are called in-kind transfers. Standard measurements of
the degree of inequality do not take account of these in-kind transfers.

INTEREST – проценты на капитал; доход с капитала
Interest is (I) a payment, per unit of time, for the use of borrowed money
(borrowers pay interest, lenders receive interest); (II) a payment, per unit
of time, to owners of capital resources.

INTEREST RATE – учётная ставка; ставка по кредиту; ставки процента
Interest rate refers to interest expressed as a percentage; in the case of
borrowed money, it is interest as a percentage of the amount borrowed.
Changes in interest rates form the basis of monetary policy.

INTERNALIZING THE EXTERNALITY – интернализация внешних
издержек
Internalizing the externality is altering incentives so that people take
account of the external effects of their actions
How can the social planner achieve the optimal outcome? One way would
be to tax aluminum producers for each ton of aluminum sold. The tax
would shift the supply curve for aluminum upward by the size of the tax.
If the tax accurately reflected the external cost of pollutants released into
the atmosphere, the new supply curve would coincide with the social-cost
curve. In the new market equilibrium, aluminum producers would produce
the socially optimal quantity of aluminum. The use of such a tax is called
internalizing the externality because it gives buyers and sellers in the market an incentive to take into account the external effects of their actions.
Aluminum producers would, in essence, take the costs of pollution into
account when deciding how much aluminum to supply because the tax
would make them pay for these external costs. And, because the market
price would reflect the tax on producers, consumers of aluminum would
have an incentive to use a smaller quantity.

INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF) – Международный
валютный фонд (МВФ)
International monetary fund (IMF) is an international financial institution composed of 185 member countries, whose purpose is to make shortterm loans to governments on commercial terms (i.e. non-concessional) in
order to stabilise exchange rates, alleviate balance of payments difficulties
and help countries meet their foreign debt obligations.

INTERVENTIONIST POLICY – политика вмешательства (например в экономику страны)
Interventionist policy is any policy based on government intervention in
the market; to be contrasted with market-oriented policy.

INTERVENTIONIST SUPPLY-SIDE POLICY – политика вмешательства в области предложения
Interventionist supply-side policy is any policy based on government
intervention in the market intended to affect the supply-side of the econ-

omy, usually to shift the LRAS curve to the right, increase potential output and achieve long term economic growth.
May be contrasted with market-based supply side policy.

INVESTMENT – инвестиция; вложенные средства
Investment includes spending by firms or the government on capital
goods (i.e. buildings, machinery, equipment, etc.) and all spending on new
construction (housing and other buildings). Investment is the purchase of
goods that will be used in the future to produce more goods and services.
It is the sum of purchases of capital equipment, inventories and structures.
Investment in structures includes expenditure on new housing. By convention, the purchase of a new house is the one form of household spending
categorized as investment rather than consumption.

J-CURVE EFFECT – запаздывание положительного воздействия
снижения валютного курса на торговый баланс
J-curve effect is a curve that plots the balance of trade (exports minus
imports) on the vertical axis and time on the horizontal axis, showing that
a country with a devaluing/depreciating currency may see a worsening in
its trade balance (an increase in a trade deficit) in the period immediately
following the devaluation or depreciation, while in a later period the trade
deficit will begin to shrink provided the Marshall–Lerner condition holds.

JOB SEARCH – поиски работы
Job search is the process by which workers find appropriate jobs given
their tastes and skills.
If all workers and all jobs were the same, so that all workers were equally
well suited for all jobs, job search would not be a problem. Laid-off workers would quickly find new jobs that were well suited for them. But in
fact, workers differ in their tastes and skills, jobs differ in their attributes,
and information about job candidates and job vacancies is disseminated
slowly among the many firms and households in the economy.

JOINT SUPPLY – совместная поставка двух или более товаров
(обходится дешевле, чем поставка каждого товара в отдельности)
Joint supply refers to production of two or more goods that are derived
from a single product, so that it is not possible to produce more of one
without producing more of the other (for example, butter and skimmed
milk are both produced from whole milk, and producing more of one
means producing more of the other as well).

KEYNESIAN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE – Кейнсианская кривая совокупного предложения
Keynesian aggregate supply curve is an aggregate supply curve that has
a flat (horizontal) section, and upward sloping section and a vertical
section.

KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS – кейнсианство; кейнсианская экономическая теория
Keynesian economics (keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic
theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions –
economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand.

KEYNESIAN MULTIPLIER – мультипликатор Кейнса
Keynesian multiplier is the ratio of real GDP divided by a change in any of
the components of aggregate spending (consumption C, investment I, government spending G, or net exports X − M); alternatively it is 1/(1-MPC),

where MPC is the marginal propensity to consume. The value of this ratio
is usually greater than one because of a multiplied effect of an initial
change in a component of aggregate spending on the final value of real
output.

KINKED DEMAND CURVE – ломаная кривая спроса
Kinked demand curve is a model developed to explain price inflexibility
of oligopolistic firms that do not collude (do not agree to collaborate
in order to limit competition between them).

LABOUR – труд; работа
Labour is a factor of production, which includes the physical and mental
effort that people contribute to the production of goods and services.

LABOUR FORCE – число работающих; трудовые ресурсы
Labour force is the total number of workers, including both the employed
and the unemployed. Labour force as the sum of the employed and the
unemployed:
Labor force = Number of employed + Number of unemployed.

LABOUR MARKET FLEXIBILITY – гибкость рынка труда
Labour market flexibility refers to the operation of market forces (supply and demand) in the labour market; to be contrasted with labour market
rigidities. May be achieved by reducing or eliminating interference with
market forces (for example, reducing or eliminating minimum wages and
labour union activities, reducing job security, etc.).

LABOUR MARKET REFORMS – реформирование рынка труда
Labour market reforms refer to reforms intended to make labour markets more competitive and flexible, to make wages respond to the forces
of supply and demand, to lower labour costs and increase employment by
lowering the natural rate of unemployment; include abolishing or reducing
minimum wages, reducing job security and reducing unemployment benefits. Are a type of supply-side policy.

LABOUR MARKET RIGIDITIES – инертность рынка труда
Labour market rigidities are factors preventing the forces of supply and
demand from operating in the labour market, and therefore preventing labour
market flexibility; include minimum wage legislation, job security, etc.

LABOUR-FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE – доля рабочей силы
(работающих и зарегистрированных безработных) в общей численности данной половозрастной группы
The labour-force participation rate measures the percentage of the total
adult population that is in the labor force.

LAND – земля; землевладение
Land is a factor of production which includes all natural resources: land
and agricultural land, as well as everything that is under or above the land,
such as minerals, oil reserves, underground water, forests, rivers and lakes.
Natural resources are also called ‘gifts of nature’ or ‘natural capital’.

LAW OF DEMAND – закон спроса (более дешёвые товары пользуются бóльшим спросом по сравнению с более дорогими)
The law of demand is a law stating that there is a negative causal relationship between the price of a good and quantity of the good demanded,

over a particular time period, ceteris paribus: as the price of the good increases, the quantity of the good demanded falls (and vice versa). The law
of demand is the claim that, other things equal, the quantity demanded
of a good falls when the price of the good rises. This relationship between
price and quantity demanded is true for most goods in the economy and,
in fact, is so pervasive that economists call it the law of demand: other
things equal, when the price of a good rises, the quantity demanded of the
good falls, and when the price falls, the quantity demanded rises.

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS – закон убывающей доходности; закон убывающей плодородности почв
Law of diminishing returns is a law that states that as more and more units
of a variable input (such as labour) are added to one or more fixed inputs
(such as land), the marginal product of the variable input at first increases, but
there comes a point when the marginal product of the variable input begins to
decrease. This relationship presupposes that the fixed input(s) remain fixed,
and that the technology of production is also fixed (unchanging).

LAW OF SUPPLY – закон предложения
The law of supply is a law stating that there is a positive causal relationship between the price of a good and quantity of the good supplied, over
a particular time period, ceteris paribus: as the price of the good increases,

the quantity of the good supplied also increases (and vice versa). It is the
claim that, other things equal, the quantity supplied of a good rises when the
price of the good rises. At a low price, some sellers may even choose to shut
down, and their quantity supplied falls to zero. This relationship between
price and quantity supplied is called the law of supply: other things equal,
when the price of a good rises, the quantity supplied of the good also rises,
and when the price falls, the quantity supplied falls as well.

LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND – закон спроса и предложения
The law of supply and demand is the claim that the price of any good
adjusts to bring the quantity supplied and the quantity demanded for that
good into balance.

LEAKAGES – утечка денежных средств; утечка товара
Leakages – in the circular flow of income model, refer to the withdrawal
from the income flow of funds corresponding to savings, taxes or imports;
also known as ‘withdrawals’.

LIBERALISM – (экономический) либерализм
Liberalism is the political philosophy according to which the government
should choose policies deemed just, as evaluated by an impartial observer
behind a “veil of ignorance”.
Philosopher John Rawls develops the idea of liberalism in his book
A Theory of Justice. This book was first published in 1971, and it quickly
became a classic in political philosophy. Rawls begins with the premise
that a society’s institutions, laws, and policies should be just. He then
takes up the natural question: How can we, the members of society, ever
agree on what justice means? It might seem that every person’s point of
view is inevitably based on his or her particular circumstances – whether
he or she is talented or less talented, diligent or lazy, educated or less educated, born to a wealthy family or a poor one.

LIBERTARIANISM – либертарианство; философская доктрина «свободы воли»
Libertarianism is the political philosophy according to which the government should punish crimes and enforce voluntary agreements but not
redistribute income. Libertarians argue that society itself earns no income –
only individual members of society earn income. According to libertarians, the government should not take from some individuals and give to
others to achieve any particular distribution of income.

LIFE CYCLE – 1) история жизни человека; 2) жизненный цикл продукции (от момента выхода на рынок до снятия с рынка)

The Economic Life Cycle Incomes vary predictably over people’s lives.
A young worker, especially one in school, has a low income. Income rises
as the worker gains maturity and experience, peaks at around age 50, and
then falls sharply when the worker retires at around age 65. This regular
pattern of income variation over a person’s life is called the life cycle.

LONG RUN – относительно длительный период времени; долгосрочный период
Long run refers to: (I) In microeconomics, it is a time period in which all
inputs can be changed; there are no fixed inputs. (II) In macroeconomics,
it is the period of time when prices of resources (especially wages) change
along with changes in the price level.

LONG RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (LRAS) CURVE –долгосрочная
кривая совокупного предложения
Long-run aggregate supply (LRAS) curve is a curve showing the relationship between real GDP produced and the price level when wages (and
other resource prices) change to reflect changes in the price level, ceteris
paribus. The LRAS curve is vertical at the full employment level of GDP,
or potential GDP, indicating that in the long run the economy produces
potential GDP, which is independent of the price level.






LONG-RUN AVERAGE TOTAL COST CURVE – кривая долгосрочных средних валовых затрат
Long-run average total cost curve is a curve that shows the lowest possible average cost that can be attained by a firm for any level of output
when all of the firm’s inputs are variable.

LONG RUN AVERAGE TOTAL COSTS – долгосрочные средние
валовые затраты
Long run average total costs are the lowest possible average costs that
can be attained by a firm for any level of output when all the firm’s inputs
are variable, i.e. in the long run.

LONG TERM GROWTH TREND – тренд перспективного развития
Long term growth trend: in the business cycle diagram, it refers to the
line that runs through the business cycle curve, representing average
growth over long periods of time; shows how output grows over time
when cyclical fluctuations are ironed out. The output represented by the
long-term growth trend is known as potential output.

LORENZ CURVE – кривая Лоренца; кривая неравномерности распределения доходов
Lorenz curve is a curve illustrating the degree of equality (or inequality)
of income distribution in an economy. It plots the cumulative percentage

of income received by cumulative shares of the population. Perfect
income equality would be represented by a straight line. The closer
the Lorenz curve is to the straight line, the greater the equality in income
distribution.

LOSS – потери; убытки
Loss refers to the difference between economic costs and total revenue of
a firm when economic costs are greater than revenues; it is negative economic profit.

LUMP-SUM TAX – налог на совокупную сумму доходов, аккордный
налог
A lump-sum tax is a tax that is the same amount for every person. Suppose the government imposes a tax of $4,000 on everyone. That is, everyone owes the same amount, regardless of earnings or any actions that
a person might take. Such a tax is called a lump-sum tax.

LUXURIES – предметы роскоши
Luxuries are goods that are not necessary or essential; they have a price
elastic demand (PED > 1) and income elastic demand (YED > 1). To be
contrasted with necessities.

MACROECONOMIC OBJECTIVES – макроэкономические задачи
Macroeconomic objectives are objectives of policy makers in the macroeconomy; they include full employment, low rate of inflation, economic
growth, an equitable distribution of income and external balance (balance
of trade and avoidance of balance of payments problems).

MACROECONOMICS – макроэкономика; макроэкономическая теория
Macroeconomics is the branch of economics that examines the economy
as a whole by use of aggregates, which are wholes or collections of many
individual units, such as the sum of consumer behaviours and the sum of
firm behaviours, total income and output of the entire economy as well as
total employment and the general price level.
Macroeconomics is the study of economy-wide phenomena, including
inflation, unemployment, and economic growth, the study of the economy
as a whole. The goal of macroeconomics is to explain the economic

changes that affect many households, firms, and markets simultaneously.
Macroeconomists address diverse questions: Why is average income high
in some countries while it is low in others? Why do prices sometimes rise
rapidly while at other times they are more stable? Why do production and
employment expand in some years and contract in others? What, if anything, can the government do to promote rapid growth in incomes, low
inflation, and stable employment? These questions are all macroeconomic
in nature because they concern the workings of the entire economy.

MANAGED EXCHANGE RATE SYSTEM – система регулируемых
валютных курсов
Managed exchange rate system is the exchange rate system in use since
1973, also known as the ‘managed float’.

MANAGED EXCHANGE RATES – регулируемые валютные курсы
Managed exchange rates are exchange rates that are for the most part
free to float to their market levels (i.e. their equilibrium levels) over long
periods of time; however, central banks periodically intervene in order to
stabilise them over the short term.

MARGINAL BENEFIT – предельная выгода
Marginal benefit is the extra or additional benefit received from consuming one more unit of a good.

MARGINAL CHANGE – незначительная перемена; незначительное
изменение
Marginal change is a small incremental adjustment to a plan of action.
Economists use the term marginal change to describe a small incremental
adjustment to an existing plan of action. Margin means “edge,” so marginal changes are adjustments around the edges of what you are doing.
Rational people often make decisions by comparing marginal benefits and
marginal costs.

MARGINAL COST – предельные издержки производства; предельно высокая себестоимость, превышение которой делает предприятие
убыточны); приростные издержки; маргинальные издержки

Marginal cost is the increase in total cost that arises from an extra unit
of production. It is the extra or additional cost of producing one more unit
of output.

MARGINAL PRIVATE BENEFITS (MPB) – предельная частная
выгода
Marginal private benefit(s) (MPB) is the extra benefit received by consumers when they consume one more unit of a good.

MARGINAL PRIVATE COSTS (MPC) – предельные частные издержки
Marginal private costs (MPC) are the extra costs to producers of producing one more unit of a good.

MARGINAL PRODUCT – приростный продукт; добавочный продукт
Marginal product the increase in output that arises from an additional
unit of input; it is the extra or additional output that results from one

additional unit of a variable input (such as labour). The marginal product
of any input in the production process is the increase in the quantity
of output obtained from one additional unit of that input. When the
number of workers goes from 1 to 2, cookie production increases from
50 to 90, so the marginal product of the second worker is 40 cookies.
And when the number of workers goes from 2 to 3, cookie production
increases from 90 to 120, so the marginal product of the third worker
is 30 cookies.

MARGINAL PRODUCT OF LABOR (MPL) – предельный продукт
труда
Marginal product of labor is the increase in the amount of output from
an additional unit of labor. When the firm increases the number of workers from 1 to 2, for example, the amount of apples produced rises from
100 to 180 bushels. Therefore, the marginal product of the second worker
is 80 bushels.

MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO CONSUME (MPC) – потребляемая
доля прироста дохода
Marginal propensity to consume (MPC) is the fraction of additional
income spent on domestically produced goods and services. Determines
the size of the Keynesian multiplier; the larger the MPC, the larger the
multiplier.

MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO IMPORT (MPI) – предельная доля
импорта в общем товарообороте
Marginal propensity to import (MPI) is the fraction of additional income spent on imports. The larger the MPI, the smaller the Keynesian
multiplier.

MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE (MPS) – предельная доля
сбережения в доходе
Marginal propensity to save (MPS) is the fraction of additional income
that is saved. The larger the MPS, the smaller the Keynesian multiplier.

MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTITUTION – предельная норма замещения
The marginal rate of substitution is the rate at which a consumer is willing to trade one good for another. The rate at which a consumer is willing
to trade one good for the other depends on the amounts of the goods he is
already consuming.

MARGINAL REVENUE – добавочный / маржинальный доход (величина поступлений, полученная в результате продажи добавочной
единицы продукции); предельная выручка
Marginal revenue is the change in total revenue from an additional unit sold;
it is the additional revenue arising from the sale of an additional unit of output. For competitive firms, marginal revenue equals the price of the good.

MARGINAL SOCIAL BENEFITS (MSB) – предельная общественная выгода
Marginal social benefits (MSB) are the extra benefits to society of consuming one more unit of a good; are equal to marginal private benefits
(MPB) when there are no consumption externalities.

MARGINAL SOCIAL COSTS (MSC) – предельные социальные
издержки
Marginal social costs (MSC) are the extra costs to society of producing
one more unit of a good; are equal to marginal private costs (MPC) when
there are no production externalities.

MARGINAL TAX RATE – предельная налоговая ставка, приростная
налоговая ставка
A marginal tax rate is the tax rate paid on additional income; refers to the
tax rate that applies to the highest tax bracket of an individual’s personal
income; it refers to the extra taxes paid on an additional dollar of income
When discussing the efficiency and equity of income taxes, economists distinguish between two notions of the tax rate: the average and the marginal.
The average tax rate is total taxes paid divided by total income. The marginal tax rate is the extra taxes paid on an additional dollar of income.

MARKET – рынок; рыночная экономика
A market is a group of buyers and sellers of a particular good or service.
The buyers as a group determine the demand for the product, and the
sellers as a group determine the supply of the product. Markets take many

forms. Some markets are highly organized, such as the markets for many agricultural commodities. In these markets, buyers and sellers meet at a specific
time and place, where an auctioneer helps set prices and arrange sales. Market
is any kind of arrangement where buyers and sellers of a particular good, service or resource are linked together to carry out an exchange.

MARKET DEMAND – рыночный спрос
Market demand refers to the sum of all individual consumer demands for
a good or service.

MARKET ECONOMY – рыночная экономика
Market economy is an economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact
in markets for goods and services. In a market economy, the decisions of
a central planner are replaced by the decisions of millions of firms and
households. Firms decide whom to hire and what to make.

MARKET EQUILIBRIUM – рыночное равновесие
Market equilibrium occurs where quantity demanded is equal to quantity
supplied, and there is no tendency for the price or quantity to change.

MARKET FAILURE – сбой рыночного механизма, несостоятельность рынка, сбой/крах рынка; проявления неэффективности рыночного механизма; дефект рыночного регулирования
Market failure is a situation in which a market left on its own fails to
allocate resources efficiently. Economists use the term market failure to
refer to a situation in which the market on its own fails to produce an efficient allocation of resources. It occurs when the market fails to allocate
resources efficiently, or to provide the quantity and combination of goods
and services mostly wanted by society. Market failure results in allocative
inefficiency, where too much or too little of goods or services are produced and consumed from the point of view of what is socially most desirable.

MARKET FOR LOANABLE FUNDS – рынок заёмных средств
Market for loanable funds is the market in which those who want to
save supply funds and those who want to borrow to invest demand funds.
Economists assume that the economy has only one financial market,
called the market for loanable funds. All savers go to this market to depos-

it their saving, and all borrowers go to this market to take out their loans.
Thus, the term loanable funds refers to all income that people have chosen
to save and lend out, rather than use for their own consumption, and to the
amount that investors have chosen to borrow to fund new investment projects. In the market for loanable funds, there is one interest rate, which is
both the return to saving and the cost of borrowing.

MARKET POWER – рыночное влияние; доминирующее положение,
господствующее положение на рынке
Market power is the ability of a single economic actor (or small group of
actors) to have a substantial influence on market prices. Market power
refers to the control that a seller may have over the price of the product it
sells; the greater the market power, the greater is the seller’s control over
price. It is also known as ‘monopoly power’. For example, if everyone in
town needs water but there is only one well, the owner of the well is not
subject to the rigorous competition with which the invisible hand normally
keeps self-interest in check. In the presence of externalities or market
power, well-designed public policy can enhance economic efficiency.

MARKET RISK – неустойчивость рынка; биржевой риск; риск повышения или падения цен на рынке
Market risk is risk that affects all companies in the stock market. Market
risk is the uncertainty associated with the entire economy, which affects

all companies traded on the stock market. For example, when the economy goes into a recession, most companies experience falling sales,
reduced profit, and low stock returns. Diversification reduces the risk of
holding stocks, but it does not eliminate it.

MARKET STRUCTURE – рыночная структура
Market structure is the characteristics of a market organisation that determine the behaviour of firms within an industry.

MARKET SUPPLY – предложение на рынке
Market supply refers to the sum of all individual firm supplies of a good
or service.

MARKET-BASED SUPPLY-SIDE POLICY – рыночная политика
в области предложения

Market-based supply-side policy refers to any policy based on promoting well functioning, competitive markets in order to influence the supplyside of the economy, usually to shift the LRAS curve to the right, increase
potential output and achieve long term economic growth; include labour
market reforms, competition policies and incentive-related policies. May
be contrasted with interventionist supply side policy.

MARKET-ORIENTED POLICY – рыночно-ориентированная политика
Market-oriented policy is a policy in which government intervention is
limited, economic decisions are made mainly by the private decisionmakers (firms and consumers) and the market has significant freedom to
determine resource allocation; to be contrasted with interventionist policy.

MARSHALL–LERNER CONDITION – условие Маршалла – Лернера
Marshall – Lerner condition is a condition stating when depreciation or
devaluation of a country’s currency will lead to an improvement in that
country’s balance of trade: the sum of the price elasticities of demand for
imports and exports must be greater than 1 for the trade balance to improve (for a trade deficit to become smaller). This usually holds over the
longer term, but not in the shorter term.

MAXIMIN CRITERION – макси-минимальный критерий; максиминный критерий
Maximin criterion is the claim that the government should aim to maximize the well-being of the worst-off person in society.

MAXIMUM PRICE – предельная цена; максимальная цена
Maximum price is a legal price set by the government, which is below the
market equilibrium price; this does not allow the price to rise to its equilibrium level determined by a free market; also known as a price ceiling.

MEDIAN VOTER THEOREM – теорема о медианном избирателе
(если кривая предпочтений всех избирателей имеет один пик, то исход голосования путем простого большинства совпадает с предпочтениями медианного избирателя)
Median voter theorem is a mathematical result showing that if voters are
choosing a point along a line and each voter wants the point closest to his
most preferred point, then majority rule will pick the most preferred point
of the median voter. According to the median voter theorem, majority rule
will produce the outcome most preferred by the median voter. The median
voter is the voter exactly in the middle of the distribution.

MERIT GOODS – общественно полезные товары; товары, заслуживающие потребления (потребление которых поощряется государством)
Merit goods are goods that are held to be desirable for consumers, but
which are underprovided by the market. Reasons for underprovision may
be that the good has positive externalities, or consumers with low incomes
cannot afford it (and so do not demand it), or consumer ignorance about
the benefits of the good.

MICROCREDIT – микрокредит
Microcredit is a programme to provide credit (loans) in small amounts to
people who do not ordinarily have access to credit. ‘Micro’ is the Greek
word for ‘small’, and refers to the small amounts of the loans, the very
small size of businesses or activities that are financed by the loans (very
small businesses are known as ‘micro-enterprises’) and the short repayment periods involved.

MICROECONOMICS – микроэкономика
Microeconomics is the branch of economics that examines the behaviour
of individual decision-making units, consumers and firms; is concerned
with consumer and firm behaviour and how their interactions in markets

determine prices in goods markets and resource markets; it is the study
of how households and firms make decisions and how they interact
in markets.
Microeconomics and macroeconomics are closely intertwined. Because
changes in the overall economy arise from the decisions of millions of
individuals, it is impossible to understand macroeconomic developments
without considering the associated microeconomic decisions. For example, a macroeconomist might study the effect of a federal income tax cut
on the overall production of goods and services. But to analyze this issue,
he or she must consider how the tax cut affects the decisions of households about how much to spend on goods and services.

MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS (MDGs) – цели ООН
в области развития на рубеже нового тысячелетия, сформулированные в «Декларации тысячелетия»
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight development goals
adopted by the Millennium Declaration of 2000, consisting of 18 targets
to be achieved by the year 2015; among the eight goals, four include eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, reducing child mortality, promoting gender equality.

MINIMUM PRICE – нижний уровень цены; самая низкая цена
Minimum price is a legal price set by the government which is above the
market equilibrium price; this does not allow the price to fall to its equilibrium level determined by a free market; also known as a price floor.

MINIMUM WAGE – уровень минимальной заработной платы
Minimum wage is a minimum price of labour (the ‘wage’) set by governments in the labour market, in order to ensure that low-skilled workers
can earn a wage high enough to secure them with access to basic goods
and services. It is a type of price floor.

MODEL OF AGGREGATE DEMAND AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY –
модель совокупного спроса и предложения
The model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply is the model that
most economists use to explain short-run fluctuations in economic activity
around its long-run trend.

MONETARY POLICY – кредитно-денежная политика
Monetary policy is policy carried out by the central bank, aiming
to change interest rates in order to influence aggregate demand; it is a type
of demandside policy, or demand management.

MONETARY UNION – валютный союз; Европейский валютный
союз
Monetary union is a high form of economic integration, involving the
adoption by a group of countries of a single currency, such as some of the
countries of the European Union (‘euro zone’ countries) that have adopted
the euro. Monetary integration in addition involves the adoption of
a common monetary policy carried out by a single central bank, which
is necessitated by the use of a single currency.

MONEY – деньги; денежные средства
Money is anything that is acceptable as payment for goods and services;
more precisely, money consists of currency (coins and paper money) and
checking accounts.

MONOPOLISTIC COMPETITION – монополистическая конкуренция
Monopolistic competition is one of the four market structures, with the
following characteristics: a large number of firms; substantial control over
market price; product differentiation; no barriers to entry. Examples include the shoe, clothing, detergent, computer, publishing, furniture and
restaurant industries.

MONOPOLY – монополия
Monopoly is one of the four market structures, with the following characteristics: a single or dominant large firm in the industry; significant control over price; produces and sells a unique product with no close substitutes; high barriers to entry into the industry. Examples include telephone,
water and electricity companies in areas where they operate as a single
supplier. A firm is a monopoly if it is the sole seller of its product and
if its product does not have close substitutes. The fundamental cause of
monopoly is barriers to entry: a monopoly remains the only seller in its
market because other firms cannot enter the market and compete with it.
Barriers to entry, in turn, have three main sources:
– Monopoly resources: A key resource required for production is owned
by a single firm.

– Government regulation: The government gives a single firm the exclusive right to produce some good or service.
– The production process: A single firm can produce output at a lower
cost than can a larger number of producers.

MONOPOLY POWER – монопольное право
Monopoly power occurs whenever a firm has the ability to control the
price of the product it sells (also known as ‘market power’).

MORAL HAZARD – моральный риск; угрозa недобросовестности
Moral hazard is the tendency of a person who is imperfectly monitored
to engage in dishonest or otherwise undesirable behavior. The phrase
moral hazard refers to the risk, or “hazard,” of inappropriate or otherwise
“immoral” behavior by the agent. In such a situation, the principal tries
various ways to encourage the agent to act more responsibly.

MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE – многостороннее содействие развитию
Multilateral development assistance is lending to developing countries
for the purpose of assisting their development on non-concessional terms
(market rates of interest and repayment periods) by multilateral organisations, i.e. organisations composed of many countries, including development banks such as the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund;
to be contrasted with foreign aid.

MULTILATERAL TRADE AGREEMENT – многостороннее торговое соглашение
Multilateral trade agreement is a trade agreement (or agreement to lower
international trade barriers) between many countries; at the present time these
are mainly carried out within the framework of the World Trade Organization
(WTO), and involve agreements between WTO member countries. May be
contrasted with bilateral trade agreement and regional trade agreement.

MULTINATIONAL CORPORATION (MNC) – многонациональная
корпорация (МНК); транснациональная компания (ТНК)
Multinational corporation (MNC) is a firm involved in foreign direct
investment (FDI); it is a firm that is based in one country (the home country) and that undertakes productive investments in another country (the
host country).

MULTIPLIER EFFECT – умноженное воздействие
A multiplier effect is the additional shifts in aggregate demand that result
when expansionary fiscal policy increases income and thereby increases
consumer spending. For example, the US government purchase from Boeing raises the demand for the products of many other firms in the economy.
Because each dollar spent by the government can raise the aggregate demand for goods and services by more than a dollar, government purchases
are said to have a multiplier effect on aggregate demand. This multiplier
effect continues even after this first round. When consumer spending rises,
the firms that produce these consumer goods hire more people and experience higher profits. Higher earnings and profits stimulate consumer
spending once again and so on. Thus, there is positive feedback as higher
demand leads to higher income, which in turn leads to even higher demand. Once all these effects are added together, the total impact on the
quantity of goods and services demanded can be much larger than the initial impulse from higher government spending.

MUTUAL FUND – инвестиционная компания открытого типа; паевой инвестиционный фонд
Mutual fund is an institution that sells shares to the public and uses the
proceeds to buy a selection, or portfolio, of various types of stocks, bonds,
or both stocks and bonds. The shareholder of the mutual fund accepts all
the risk and return associated with the portfolio. If the value of the portfolio rises, the shareholder benefits; if the value of the portfolio falls, the
shareholder suffers the loss.

NASH EQUILIBRIUM – равновесие Нэша
A Nash equilibrium is a situation in which economic actors interacting
with one another each choose their best strategy given the strategies the others have chosen. The outcome in which Jack and Jill each produce 40 gallons looks like some sort of equilibrium. In fact, this outcome is called
a Nash equilibrium. (It is named after economic theorist John Nash, whose
life was portrayed in the book and movie A Beautiful Mind.) In this case,
given that Jill is producing 40 gallons, the best strategy for Jack is to produce 40 gallons. Similarly, given that Jack is producing 40 gallons, the best
strategy for Jill is to produce 40 gallons. Once they reach this Nash equilibrium, neither Jack nor Jill has an incentive to make a different decision.

NATIONAL INCOME – национальный доход
National income is the total income of an economy, often used interchangeably with the value of aggregate output, particularly in the context
of macroeconomic models (such as the AD–AS model).

NATIONAL INCOME STATISTICS – статистика национального
дохода
National income statistics refers to statistical data used to measure an
economy’s national income and output as well as other measures of economic performance.

NATIONALISATION – национализация
Nationalisation is a transfer in ownership of a firm away from the private
sector and toward government ownership; a nationalised firm is a government-owned firm.

NATIONAL SAVING – национальные сбережения
National saving is the total income in the economy that remains after
paying for consumption and government purchases

NATURAL CAPITAL – природные богатства страны; природный
капитал
Natural capital refers to an expanded meaning of the factor of production
land, including everything that is included in land plus additional natural
resources occurring naturally in the environment such as the air, biodiversity, soil quality, the ozone layer and the global climate. Is considered to be
a type of ‘capital’ because it provides a stream of future benefits as it is necessary for humankind’s ability to live, survive and produce in the future.

NATURAL MONOPOLY – естественная монополия
Natural monopoly is a single firm (a monopoly) that can produce for the
entire market at a lower average cost than two or more smaller firms. This
happens when the market demand for the monopolist’s product is within
the range of falling long-run average cost, where there are economies of
scale. OR: an industry is a natural monopoly when a single firm can supply a good or service to an entire market at a lower cost than could two or
more firms. A natural monopoly arises when there are economies of scale
over the relevant range of output.

NATURAL RATE OF OUTPUT – естественный уровень выпуска
The natural rate of output is the production of goods and services that
an economy achieves in the long run when unemployment is at its normal
rate. Natural rate of output shows what the economy produces when unemployment is at its natural, or normal, rate. The natural rate of output is
the level of production toward which the economy gravitates in the long
run. The long-run level of production is sometimes called potential output
or full-employment output.

NATURAL-RATE HYPOTHESIS – экономическая гипотеза естественного уровня безработицы (гипотеза долговременной стабильности экономики при естественном уровне безработицы)
The natural-rate hypothesis is the claim that unemployment eventually
returns to its normal, or natural, rate, regardless of the rate of inflation.
Friedman and Phelps had made a bold prediction in 1968: If policymakers
try to take advantage of the Phillips curve by choosing higher inflation to
reduce unemployment, they will succeed at reducing unemployment only
temporarily. This view is called the natural-rate hypothesis.

NATURAL RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT – естественный уровень
безработицы; хроническая безработица (долговременная безработица, которая не зависит от темпов экономического роста)
Natural rate of unemployment is the unemployment that occurs when
the economy is producing at its potential or full employment level of out-

put (real GDP), and is equal to the sum of structural, frictional plus seasonal unemployment; it is the normal rate of unemployment around which
the unemployment rate fluctuates.

NATURAL RESOURCES – естественные или природные ресурсы
Natural resources are the inputs into the production of goods and services that are provided by nature, such as land, rivers, and mineral deposits. Natural resources take two forms: renewable and nonrenewable.
A forest is an example of a renewable resource. When one tree is cut
down, a seedling can be planted in its place to be harvested in the future.
Oil is an example of a nonrenewable resource. Because oil is produced by
nature over many millions of years, there is only a limited supply. Once
the supply of oil is depleted, it is impossible to create more.

NECESSITIES – предметы первой необходимости
Necessities are goods that are necessary or essential: they have a price
inelastic demand (PED < 1) and income inelastic demand (YED < 1).
To be contrasted with luxuries.

NEGATIVE CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP – отрицательная причинноследственная связь
Negative causal relationship is a relationship between two variables in
which an increase in the value of one causes a decrease in the value of the
other, i.e. the two variables change in opposite directions; also known as
an indirect relationship.

NEGATIVE EXTERNALITY – отрицательный внешний эффект
Negative externality is a type of externality where the side-effects
on third parties are negative or harmful, also known as ‘spillover costs’.
To be contrasted with positive externality.

NEGATIVE EXTERNALITY OF CONSUMPTION – отрицательный внешний эффект потребления
Negative externality of consumption is a negative externality caused by
consumption activities, leading to a situation where marginal social benefits are less than marginal private benefits (MSB < MPB).

NEGATIVE EXTERNALITY OF PRODUCTION – отрицательный
внешний эффект производства
Negative externality of production is a negative externality caused by
production activities, leading to a situation where marginal social costs are
greater than marginal private costs (MSC > MPC).

NEGATIVE INCOME TAX – отрицательный подоходный налог
Negative income tax is a tax system that collects revenue from highincome households and gives subsidies to low-income households.
Many economists have advocated supplementing the income of the poor
using a negative income tax. According to this policy, every family would
report its income to the government. High-income families would pay
a tax based on their incomes. Low-income families would receive a subsidy. In other words, they would “pay” a “negative tax.”

NET CAPITAL OUTFLOW – чистая утечка капитала
The term net capital outflow refers to the difference between the purchase of foreign assets by domestic residents and the purchase of domestic
assets by foreigners:
Net capital outflow = Purchase of foreign assets by domestic residents –
Purchase of domestic assets by foreigners.

NET EXPORTS – нетто-экспорт; чистый экспорт
Net exports refers to the value of exports minus the value of imports. The
net exports of any country are the difference between the value of its exports and the value of its imports:
Net exports = Value of country’s exports – Value of country’s imports.
Net exports is spending on domestically produced goods by foreigners
(exports) minus spending on foreign goods by domestic residents (imports). A domestic firm’s sale to a buyer in another country, such as Boeing’s sale of an airplane to British Airways, increases net exports.

NOMINAL EXCHANGE – номинальный валютный курс (в отличие
от рыночного)
The nominal exchange rate is the rate at which a person can trade the
currency of one country for the currency of another.

NOMINAL GDP – номинальный ВВП
Nominal GDP is gross domestic product measured in terms of current
(or nominal) prices, which are prices prevailing at the time of measurement. Does not account for changes in the price level; to be distinguished
from real GDP.

NOMINAL INTEREST RATE – номинальная процентная ставка
Nominal interest rate is the interest rate as usually reported without a
correction for the effects of inflation. To understand how much a person
earns in a savings account, we need to consider both the interest rate and
the change in the prices. The interest rate that measures the change in dollar amounts is called the nominal interest rate, and the interest rate corrected for inflation is called the real interest rate. The nominal interest
rate, the real interest rate, and inflation are related approximately as follows:
Real interest rate = Nominal interest rate – Inflation rate.
The real interest rate is the difference between the nominal interest rate
and the rate of inflation. The nominal interest rate tells you how fast the
number of dollars in your bank account rises over time, while the real interest rate tells you how fast the purchasing power of your bank account
rises over time.

NOMINAL VALUE – номинальная стоимость/цена; номинал
Nominal value is value that is in money terms, measured in terms of prices that prevail at the time of measurement, and that does not account for
changes in the price level; to be distinguished from real values.

NON-COLLUSIVE OLIGOPOLY – олигополия без сговора
Non-collusive oligopoly is a type of oligopoly where firms do not make
agreements among themselves (i.e. do not collude) in order to fix prices or
collaborate in some way.

NON-EXCLUDABLE – не подлежащий исключению; невозможный
для исключения
Non-excludable is a characteristic of some goods where it is not possible
to exclude someone from using a good, because it is not possible to charge
a price; it is one of the two characteristics of public goods (to be contrasted with excludable).

NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS (NGOs) – неправительственные организации
Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are non-profit organisations
that provide a very wide range of services and humanitarian functions;
in developing countries they provide foreign aid, all of which takes
the form of grants (there are no loans involved). They are involved with
an enormous range of activities, including emergency assistance, promotion of sustainable development, poverty alleviation, protection of child
health, provision of technical assistance, and many more.

NON-PRICE COMPETITION – неценовая конкуренция
Non-price competition occurs when firms compete with each other on
the basis of methods other than price (such as product differentiation, advertising and branding). Non-price competition occurs in oligopoly and
monopolistic competition.

NON-PRICE DETERMINANTS OF DEMAND – неценовые факторы спроса
Non-price determinants of demand are the variables (other than price)
that can influence demand, and that determine the position of a demand
curve; a change in any determinant of demand causes a shift of the demand curve, which is referred to as a ‘change in demand’.

NON-PRICE DETERMINANTS OF SUPPLY – неценовые факторы
предложения/ поставки
Non-price determinants of supply are the variables (other than price)
that can influence supply, and that determine the position of a supply
curve; a change in any determinant of supply causes a shift of the supply
curve, which is referred to as a ‘change in supply’.

NON-PRICE RATIONING – неценовое нормирование
Non-price rationing is the apportioning or distributing of goods among
interested users/buyers through means other than price, often necessary
when there are price ceilings (maximum prices); may include waiting in
line (queues) and underground markets; to be contrasted with ‘price rationing’, which involves distributing goods among users by means of
market-determined prices.

NON-PRODUCED, NON-FINANCIAL ASSETS – непроизводственные, нефинансовые активы
Non-produced, non-financial assets are a part of the capital account of
the balance of payments, which includes a variety of items such as mineral rights, forestry rights, fishing rights and airspace.

NON-RIVALROUS – несоперничающий
Non-rivalrous is a characteristic of some goods where the consumption of
the good by one person does not reduce consumption by someone else; it is one
of the two characteristics of public goods (to be contrasted with rivalrous).

NORMAL GOOD(S) – стандартные товары
A normal good is a good the demand for which varies positively (or directly) with income; this means that as income increases, demand for
the good increases; it is a good for which, other things equal, an increase
in income leads to an increase in demand.

What would happen to your demand for ice cream if you lost your job one
summer? Most likely, it would fall. A lower income means that you have
less to spend in total, so you would have to spend less on some – and
probably most – goods. If the demand for a good falls when income falls,
the good is called a normal good. OR: a normal good is a good for which
an increase in income raises the quantity demanded.

NORMAL PROFIT – нормальная прибыль
Normal profit is the minimum amount of revenue that a firm must receive so that it keeps the business running (as opposed to shutting down);
also defined as the amount of revenue needed to cover implicit costs,
including entrepreneurship. (This presupposes that total revenue is also
enough to cover explicit costs.) Normal profit is included among the economic costs of the firm, and is earned when economic profit is zero.

NORMATIVE ECONOMICS – нормативная экономическая теория
Normative economics is the body of economics based on normative statements, which involve beliefs, or value judgements about what ought to be.
Normative statements cannot be true or false; they can only be assessed relative to beliefs and value judgements. Normative economics forms the basis
of economic policies; to be contrasted with positive economics.

NORMATIVE STATEMENTS – нормативные высказывания
Normative statements are claims that attempt to prescribe how the world
should be. Normative statements are prescriptive. They make a claim
about how the world ought to be.

OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA) – официальная
помощь в целях развития (ОПР)
Official development assistance (ODA) is the most important part of
foreign aid, referring to foreign aid that is offered by countries or by international organisations composed of a number of countries (it does not
include aid offered by non-governmental organisations).

OLIGOPOLY – олигополия (рыночная ситуация с ограниченным
числом крупных фирм)
Oligopoly is one of the four market structures, with the following characteristics: small number of large firms in the industry; firms have significant control over price; firms are interdependent; products may be differentiated or homogeneous; there are high barriers to entry. Examples
include the car industry, airlines, electrical appliances (differentiated
products) and the steel, aluminium, copper, cement industries (homogeneous products). OR: one type of imperfectly competitive market is an oligopoly, which is a market with only a few sellers, each offering a product
that is similar or identical to the products offered by other sellers.

OPEN ECONOMY – открытая экономика; экономика свободного
предпринимательства
Open economy is an economy that has international trade: (imports and
exports) usually appears in connection with economic theories and models
as virtually all economies in the real world are open economies (though to
varying degrees); it is an economy that interacts freely with other economies around the world. To be contrasted with closed economy.

OPPORTUNITY COST – издержки неиспользованных возможностей, альтернативные издержки; стоимость упущенной выгоды
The opportunity cost of an item is what you give up to get that item; it is
the value of the next best alternative that must be given up or sacrificed in
order to obtain something else. When making any decision, decision makers should be aware of the opportunity costs that accompany each possible
action. In fact, they usually are. College athletes who can earn millions if
they drop out of school and play professional sports are well aware that
their opportunity cost of college is very high. It is not surprising that they
often decide that the benefit of a college education is not worth the cost.

OUTPUT APPROACH – метод объёма производства
Output approach is a method used to measure the value of aggregate
output of an economy, which calculates the value of all final goods and
services produced in the country within a given time period. As suggested
by the circular flow model, it is equivalent to measurement by the expenditure approach and the income approach.

OVERALLOCATION OF RESOURCES – избыточное распределение ресурсов
Overallocation of resources occurs when too many resources are allocated to the production of a good relative to what is socially most desirable,
resulting in its overproduction.

OVERVALUED CURRENCY – валюта с завышенным курсом
Overvalued currency is a currency whose value is higher than its freemarket value; may occur if the exchange rate is fixed (or pegged), or in
a managed exchange rate system, but not in a freely floating exchange rate
system. To be contrasted with undervalued currency.

PER CAPITA – подушевой; среднедушевой; в расчёте на душу
населения
Per capita means per person, or per head. For example, GDP per capita
is total GDP divided by the number of people in the population.

PERFECT COMPETITION – совершенная конкуренция
Perfect competition is one of the four market structures, with the following characteristics: a large number of small firms; no control over price;
all firms sell a homogeneous product; no barriers to entry, perfect information and perfect resource mobility. Examples include agricultural
commodity markets and the foreign exchange market.

PERFECT COMPLEMENTS – совершенные дополнители/комплименты (товары, которые всегда используются совместно и всегда в одной
и той же пропорции)
Perfect complements are two goods with rightangle indifference curves.

PERFECT SUBSTITUTES – совершенные полные заменители;
совершенный субститут
Perfect substitutes are two goods with straightline indifference curves.

PERFECTLY ELASTIC DEMAND – идеально эластичный спрос
Perfectly elastic demand refers to a price elasticity of demand value of
infinity, and arises in the case of a horizontal demand curve.

PERFECTLY ELASTIC SUPPLY – идеально эластичное предложение
Perfectly elastic supply refers to a price elasticity of supply value of infinity, and arises in the case of a horizontal supply curve.

PERFECTLY INELASTIC DEMAND – совершенно неэластичный
спрос
Perfectly inelastic demand refers to a price elasticity of demand value of
zero, and arises in the case of a vertical demand curve.

PERFECTLY INELASTIC SUPPLY – совершенно неэластичное
предложение
Perfectly inelastic supply refers to a price elasticity of supply value
of zero, and arises in the case of a vertical supply curve.

PERMANENT INCOME – постоянный доход (характеризующий
устойчивый, привычный для субъекта уровень)
Permanent income is a person’s normal income. To the extent that
a family saves in good years and borrows (or depletes its savings) in bad
years, transitory changes in income need not affect its standard of living.
A family’s ability to buy goods and services depends largely on its permanent income, which is its normal, or average, income.

PERSONAL INCOME TAXES – налог на личный доход; индивидуальный подоходный налог
Personal income taxes are taxes paid by households or individuals in
households on all forms of income, including wages, rental income, interest income, and dividends (income from ownership of shares in a company); is the most important source of government tax revenues in many
countries (especially economically more developed countries).

PHILLIPS CURVE – кривая Филлипса (показывающая соотношение
между динамикой безработицы и инфляцией; характеризует динамику заработной платы или цен в зависимости от уровня безработицы)
Phillips curve is a curve showing the relationship between unemployment
and inflation. The short-run Phillips curve shows a negative relationship
between the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate (as the rate of
inflation increases, unemployment falls) suggesting that in the short run
policy-makers can choose between the competing alternatives of low inflation or low unemployment by selecting appropriate demand-side policies. The long-run Phillips curve is a vertical line at the natural rate of unemployment, indicating that there is no negative relationship between inflation and unemployment, and suggesting that policy-makers do not have
a choice between the two competing alternatives. In the long run, the only
impact of an increase in aggregate demand is to increase the rate of inflation, while the level of real output is unaffected and the unemployment
rate remains unchanged at the natural rate of unemployment. Thus, the
Phillips curve is a curve that shows the short-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment. “Probably the single most important macroeconomic relationship is the Phillips curve.” These are the words of economist George Akerlof from the lecture he gave when he received the Nobel
Prize in 2001. The Phillips curve is the short-run relationship between
inflation and unemployment.

PHYSICAL CAPITAL – физический/материальный капитал; основной капитал; капитал в форме материальных активов
Physical capital is one of the factors of production, which is itself produced (it doesn’t occur naturally), used to produce goods and services;

includes machinery, tools, factories, buildings, road systems, airports, telephone supply lines, etc. Workers are more productive if they have tools
with which to work. The stock of equipment and structures used to produce goods and services is called physical capital, or just capital. For example, when woodworkers make furniture, they use saws, lathes, and drill
presses. More tools allow the woodworkers to produce their output more
quickly and more accurately: a worker with only basic hand tools can
make less furniture each week than a worker with sophisticated and specialized woodworking equipment.

POLITICAL ECONOMY – политическая экономия
Political economy is the study of government using the analytic methods
of economics. The government is an imperfect institution. The field of
political economy (sometimes called the field of public choice) applies the
methods of economics to study how government works.

PORTFOLIO INVESTMENT – портфельные инвестиции
Portfolio investment is financial investment, including investment in
stocks and bonds. Appears as an item in the financial account of the balance of payments.

POSITIVE ECONOMICS – позитивная экономическая теория
(не дающая рекомендаций для политики)
Positive economics is the body of economics based on positive statements, which are about things that are, were or will be. Positive statements may be true or false. They form the basis of theories and models
that try to explain economic events. To be contrasted with normative
economics.

POSITIVE EXTERNALITY – положительный внешний эффект
Positive externality is a type of externality where the side-effects on third
parties are positive or beneficial, also known as ‘spillover benefits’; to be
contrasted with negative externality; see also externality.

POSITIVE EXTERNALITY OF CONSUMPTION – положительный
внешний эффект потребления
Positive externality of consumption is a positive externality caused by
consumption activities, leading to a situation where marginal social benefits are greater than marginal private benefits (MSB > MPB).

POSITIVE EXTERNALITY OF PRODUCTION – положительный
внешний эффект производства
Positive externality of production is a positive externality caused by
production activities, leading to a situation where marginal social costs are
less than marginal private costs (MSC < MPC).

POSITIVE STATEMENTS – положительное утверждение, утвердительное высказывание
Positive statements are claims that attempt to describe the world as it is.
Positive statements are descriptive. They make a claim about how the
world is. A second type of statement, such as Norm’s, is normative.

POTENTIAL OUTPUT (POTENTIAL GDP) – проектная производительность; производственный потенциал; потенциальный объём
производства
Potential output (potential GDP) is the level of output (real GDP) that
can be produced when there is ‘full employment’, meaning that unemployment is equal to the natural rate of unemployment; also known as the
full employment level of output.

POVERTY – обнищание; бедность
Poverty is the inability of an individual or family to afford an adequate
standard of goods and services; this standard may be absolute or relative;
see absolute poverty and relative poverty.

POVERTY CYCLE – цикл бедности
Poverty cycle arises when low incomes result in low (or zero) savings,
permitting only low (or zero) investments in physical, human and natural
capital, and therefore low productivity of labour and of land, which in turn
gives rise to low, if any, growth in income (sometimes growth may be
negative), and hence low incomes once again. A poverty cycle may occur
in a family, a community, a part of an economy, or in an economy as a
whole. An important feature of the poverty cycle is that poverty is transmitted from generation to generation.

POVERTY LINE – прожиточный минимум
Poverty line is an absolute level of income set by the federal government
for each family size below which a family is deemed to be in poverty. The
poverty line is set at roughly three times the cost of providing an adequate
diet. This line is adjusted every year to account for changes in the level of
prices, and it depends on family size.

POVERTY RATE – уровень бедности; процентная доля бедных
в общем населении
Poverty rate is the percentage of the population whose family income
falls below an absolute level called the poverty line. The poverty line is
set by the federal government at roughly three times the cost of providing
an adequate diet. This line is adjusted every year to account for changes in
the level of prices, and it depends on family size.

PREFERENTIAL TRADE AGREEMENT – преференциальное торговое соглашение; преференциальные торговые соглашения
Preferential trade agreement is an agreement between two or more
countries to lower trade barriers between them on particular products, resulting in easier access to the markets of other members for the selected
products, compared with the access of countries that are not members.

PRESENT VALUE – существующая цена; фактическая стоимость;
настоящая стоимость
The present value is the amount of money today that would be needed,
using prevailing interest rates, to produce a given future amount of money.

PRICE CEILING – потолок цен, установленный предел для повышения цен, лимит цен; ценовой максимум
Price ceiling is a maximum price set by the government for a particular
good, meaning that the price that can be legally charged by the sellers of
the good cannot be higher than the legal maximum price. Results in a
shortage of the product. OR: Price ceiling is a legal maximum on the price
at which a good can be sold. Because the price is not allowed to rise above
this level, the legislated maximum is called a price ceiling.

PRICE COMPETITION – ценовая конкуренция (сбивание цен на
продукты равного качества)
Price competition occurs when a firm lowers its price to attract customers away from rival firms, thus increasing sales at the expense of other
firms. May occur in the case of monopolistic competition or oligopoly,
but not in perfect competition (or monopoly).

PRICE CONTROL – регулирование цен
Price control is setting of minimum or maximum prices by the government (or private organisations) so that prices are unable to adjust to their
equilibrium level determined by demand and supply. Price controls result
in shortages or surpluses.

PRICE DEFLATOR – дефлятор цен; индекс цен
Price deflator is a price index used to calculate real GDP from nominal
GDP; better known as the ‘GDP deflator’.

PRICE DISCRIMINATION – ценовая дискриминация
Price discrimination is the business practice of selling the same good at
different prices to different customers. In many cases, firms sell the same
good to different customers for different prices, even though the costs of
producing for the two customers are the same. This practice is called price
discrimination. Thus, Price discrimination is the practice of charging
a different price for the same product when the price difference is not justified by differences in costs of production.

PRICE ELASTIC DEMAND – ценовой эластичный спрос
Price elastic demand is relatively high responsiveness of demand to
changes in price; PED (price elasticity of demand) > 1.

PRICE ELASTIC SUPPLY – ценовое эластичное предложение
Price elastic supply is relatively high responsiveness of supply to changes in price; PES (price elasticity of supply) > 1.

PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND (PED) – ценовая эластичность
спроса
Price elasticity of demand (PED) is a measure of the responsiveness of
the quantity of a good demanded to changes in its price, given by the percentage change in quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in
price. In general, if there is a large responsiveness of quantity demanded
(PED > 1), demand is referred to as being elastic; if there is a small responsiveness (PED < 1), demand is inelastic. Thus, the price elasticity of demand measures how much the quantity demanded responds to a change in
price. Demand for a good is said to be elastic if the quantity demanded responds substantially to changes in the price. Demand is said to be inelastic
if the quantity demanded responds only slightly to changes in the price.

PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY (PES) – ценовая эластичность
предложения
Price elasticity of supply (PES) is a measure of the responsiveness of the
quantity of a good supplied to changes in its price, given by the percent-

age change in quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price.
In general, if there is a large responsiveness of quantity supplied (PES > 1),
supply is referred to as being elastic; if there is a small responsiveness
(PES < 1), supply is inelastic. In this way, the price elasticity of supply is
a measure of how much the quantity supplied of a good responds to
a change in the price of that good, computed as the percentage change in
quantity supplied divided by the percentage change in price. The law of
supply states that higher prices raise the quantity supplied. The price elasticity of supply measures how much the quantity supplied responds to
changes in the price. Supply of a good is said to be elastic if the quantity
supplied responds substantially to changes in the price. Supply is said
to be inelastic if the quantity supplied responds only slightly to changes
in the price.

PRICE FLOOR – минимальный уровень цен; минимальная цена
Price floor is a minimum price set by the government for a particular
good, meaning that the price that can be legally charged by the sellers of
the good cannot be lower than the legal minimum price. Results in a surplus of the product.

PRICE INELASTIC DEMAND – ценовой неэластичный спрос
Price inelastic demand is relatively low responsiveness of demand to
changes in price; PED (price elasticity of demand) < 1.

PRICE INELASTIC SUPPLY – ценовое неэластичное предложение
Price inelastic supply is relatively low responsiveness of supply to
changes in price; PES (price elasticity of supply) < 1.

PRICE LEADERSHIP – ценовое лидерство
Price leadership is a type of tacit (or informal) collusion among oligopolistic firms, where a dominant firm in the industry (which may be the largest, or the one with lowest costs) sets a price and also initiates any price
changes; the remaining firms in the industry become price-takers, accepting the price that has been established by the leader. Under price leadership price changes tend to be infrequent, and are undertaken by the leader
only when major demand or cost changes occur.

PRICE SUPPORT – поддержка цен; предельная минимальная цена,
которую правительство гарантирует фермерам
Price support refers to minimum prices (or price floors) set by the government for agricultural products.

PRICE TAKER – ценополучатель; игрок рынка, который принимает
цены как данность (не имеющий возможности влиять на них)
Price taker is a firm that accepts a price at which it sells its product. Usually refers to firms in perfect competition, which being small and numerous have no control over price, and therefore accept the price determined
in the market; may also be used to refer to firms in oligopoly that practice
tacit collusion and accept a price set by a price leader.

PRICE WAR – ценовая война; ожесточённая ценовая конкуренция
Price war is competitive price-cutting by firms; usually in oligopoly. As
each one tries to capture market shares from rival firms; results in lower
profits for firms.

PRICES AS INCENTIVES – цены как стимулы
Prices as incentives refer to the ability of prices, and changes in prices,
to convey information to consumers and producers that motivates them
to respond by offering them incentives to behave in their best-selfinterest; compare with prices as signals, which together with prices as
incentives lead to an efficient allocation of resources (assuming no market failures).

PRICES AS SIGNALS – цены как сигналы
Prices as signals refer to the ability of prices, and changes in prices,
to communicate information to consumers and producers, on the basis
of which they make economic decisions.

PRIMARY COMMODITY – необработанное сырье; необработанные
сырьевые товары
Primary commodity is any product that is produced in the primary sector, which includes agriculture, forestry, fishing and the extractive industries; also known as ‘commodity’.

PRIMARY PRODUCTS – первичный продукт; профилирующий
продукт; сырьё
Primary products refer to all products produced in the primary sector of
an economy; also known as commodities.

PRIMARY SECTOR – первичный сектор
Primary sector is a part of an economy that is dominated by agriculture,
also including fishing, forestry and all extractive activities (such as mining).

PRISONER’S DILEMMA – «дилемма заключённого» (некооперативная игра с ненулевой суммой)
Prisoners’ dilemma is a problem in game theory showing that in some
situations, although it is in the best interests of decision-makers to cooperate, when each actor acts in his/her best interests there results an outcome where they are all worse off. Is often used to illustrate the strategic
interdependence of oligopolistic firms. The prisoners’ dilemma is a particular “game” between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial. This
game provides insight into why cooperation is difficult. Many times in
life, people fail to cooperate with one another even when cooperation
would make them all better off. An oligopoly is just one example.
The story of the prisoners’ dilemma contains a general lesson that applies
to any group trying to maintain cooperation among its members.
The prisoners’ dilemma is a story about two criminals who have been captured by the police. Let’s call them Bonnie and Clyde. The police have
enough evidence to convict Bonnie and Clyde of the minor crime of carrying an unregistered gun, so that each would spend a year in jail. The police also suspect that the two criminals have committed a bank robbery
together, but they lack hard evidence to convict them of this major crime.
The police question Bonnie and Clyde in separate rooms, and they offer
each of them the following deal: “Right now, we can lock you up for 1 year.
If you confess to the bank robbery and implicate your partner, however,
we’ll give you immunity and you can go free. Your partner will get
20 years in jail. But if you both confess to the crime, we won’t need your
testimony and we can avoid the cost of a trial, so you will each get an intermediate sentence of 8 years.” Each prisoner has two strategies: confess
or remain silent. The sentence each prisoner gets depends on the strategy he
or she chooses and the strategy chosen by his or her partner in crime. Consider first Bonnie’s decision. She reasons as follows: “I don’t know what
Clyde is going to do. If he remains silent, my best strategy is to confess,
since then I’ll go free rather than spending a year in jail. If he confesses, my
best strategy is still to confess, since then I’ll spend 8 years in jail rather
than 20. So, regardless of what Clyde does, I am better off confessing.”

PRIVATE GOODS – товары индивидуального потребления; товары
для личного потребления
Private goods are goods that are both excludable and rival in consumption. Consider an ice-cream cone, for example. An ice-cream cone is excludable because it is possible to prevent someone from eating an icecream cone – you just don’t give it to him. An ice-cream cone is rival in
consumption because if one person eats an ice-cream cone, another person
cannot eat the same cone. Most goods in the economy are private goods
like ice-cream cones: you don’t get one unless you pay for it, and once
you have it, you are the only person who benefits. To be contrasted with
public good.

PRIVATE SAVING – частные сбережения
Private saving is the amount of income that households have left after
paying their taxes and paying for their consumption. In particular, because
households receive income of Y, pay taxes of T, and spend C on consumption, private saving is Y – T – C.

PRIVATISATION – приватизация
Privatisation is a transfer of ownership from the public sector (the government) to the private sector, i.e. private owners.

PRODUCER PRICE INDEX (PPI) – индекс оптовых цен; индекс цен
производителей (отражает себестоимость производства без учёта издержек обращения на сбыт и налогов с продаж)
Producer price index (PPI) is a measure of the cost of a basket of goods
and services bought by firms than consumers. Because firms eventually
pass on their costs to consumers in the form of higher consumer prices,
changes in the producer price index are often thought to be useful in predicting changes in the consumer price index. PPI consists of several indices of prices received by producers of goods at various stages in the production process (such as a PPI for inputs, a PPI for intermediate goods,
and a PPI for final goods); considered to be predictors of changes in the
consumer price index (CPI) because they measure price changes at an earlier stage in the production process.

PRODUCER SURPLUS – выигрыш производителя, производственный излишек
Producer surplus is the amount a seller is paid for a good minus the seller’s cost of providing it. It refers to the difference between the price

received by firms for selling their good and the lowest price they are willing to accept to produce the good.
What benefit does Grandma receive from getting the job? Because she is
willing to do the work for $500 but gets $600 for doing it, we say that she
receives producer surplus of $100. Producer surplus is the amount a seller
is paid minus the cost of production. Producer surplus measures the benefit sellers receive from participating in a market.

PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION – расширение номенклатуры продукции; расширение ассортимента продукции; индивидуализация
продукции
Product differentiation occurs when each firm in an industry tries to
make its product different from those of its competitors; usually in order
to create some monopoly power; products can be differentiated by physical differences, quality differences, location, services, and product image.

PRODUCTION FUNCTION – производственная функция
Production function is the relationship between the quantity of the inputs
used in production and the quantity of output from production. Here the “input” is the apple pickers and the “output” is the apples. The other inputs–

the trees themselves, the land, the firm’s trucks and tractors, and so on – are
held fixed for now. This firm’s production function shows that if the firm
hires 1 worker, that worker will pick 100 bushels of apples per week. If the
firm hires 2 workers, the 2 workers together will pick 180 bushels per week.

PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES – производственные возможности;
производственный потенциал
Production possibilities refer to all possible combinations of the maximum amounts of two goods that can produced by an economy, given
fixed and unchanging resources and technology, when there is full employment of resources and productive efficiency.

PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES FRONTIER – граница производственных возможностей, предельный уровень производства
The production possibilities frontier is a graph that shows the combinations of output that the economy can possibly produce given the available
factors of production and the available production technology. The production possibilities frontier is a graph that shows the various combinations of output – e.g., cars and computers – that the economy can possibly
produce given the available factors of production and the available production technology that firms use to turn these factors into output.

PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY – производственная эффективность
Productive efficiency occurs when firms produce at the lowest possible
cost; it is one of the conditions for producing on the production possibilities curve (PPC). The condition for productive efficiency is that production takes place where ATC is minimum.

PRODUCTIVITY – производительность; продуктивность; производительность факторов производства
Productivity is the quantity of goods and services produced from each
unit of labor input. If Crusoe is good at catching fish, growing vegetables,
and making clothes, he lives well. If he is bad at doing these things,
he lives poorly. Because Crusoe gets to consume only what he produces,
his living standard is tied to his productivity.
Almost all variation in living standards is attributable to differences
in countries’ productivity – that is, the amount of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input. In nations where workers can produce a large quantity of goods and services per unit of time, most people
enjoy a high standard of living; in nations where workers are less productive, most people endure a more meager existence. Similarly, the growth
rate of a nation’s productivity determines the growth rate of its average income. Thus, productivity refers to the quantity of output produced for each
hour of work of the working population; for an economy as a whole it can
be measured as real GDP divided by the total number of hours worked.
Increases in productivity are a major factor leading to economic growth.

PROFIT – прибыль
Profit is a payment, per unit of time, to owners of entrepreneurship/management (a factor of production); it is a firm’s total revenue
minus its total cost:
Profit = Total revenue – Total cost

PROFIT MAXIMISATION – максимизация прибыли
Profit maximisation is the goal of firms, according to the standard theory
of the firm. It involves making profit as large as possible, and is achieved
by producing the level of output where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the largest, or where marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue.

PROGRESSIVE TAX – прогрессивная шкала ставок налогового обложения, прогрессивный налог
Progressive tax is a tax for which high-income taxpayers pay a larger
fraction of their income than do low-income taxpayers (see also proportional tax and regressive tax)

PROJECT AID – помощь по проекту
Project aid is foreign aid involving support for specific projects, such as
building schools, clinics, hospitals, irrigation systems, other agricultural
infrastructure, or others.

PROPERTY RIGHTS – права собственности, имущественные права
Property rights are the ability of an individual to own and exercise control over scarce resources.
Most important, market economies need institutions to enforce property
rights so individuals can own and control scarce resources.

PROPORTIONAL TAX – налог, взимаемый по единой ставке; пропорциональный налог
Proportional tax is a tax for which high-income and low-income taxpayers
pay the same fraction of income (see also progressive tax and regressive tax).

PUBLIC DEBT – государственная задолженность; государственный
долг
Public debt refers to the government’s accumulation of budget deficits
minus budget surpluses; is the total amount owed by the government to all
creditors (lenders); also known as ‘government debt’.

PUBLIC GOOD(S) – общественные блага; общественный товар;
товары и услуги, предоставляемые для общественного потребления
Public goods are goods that are neither excludable nor rival in consumption. OR: Public good is a good that is non-rivalrous (its consumption by
one person does not reduce consumption by someone else) and nonexcludable (it is not possible to exclude someone from using the good).
That is, people cannot be prevented from using a public good, and one
person’s use of a public good does not reduce another person’s ability to
use it. For example, a tornado siren in a small town is a public good. Once
the siren sounds, it is impossible to prevent any single person from hearing it (so it is not excludable). Moreover, when one person gets the benefit
of the warning, he does not reduce the benefit to anyone else (so it is not
rival in consumption). Since it is not possible to exclude someone from
using the good even though they do not pay for it, firms do not have an
incentive to produce it. Public goods are therefore provided by the government. This is a type of market failure.

PUBLIC SAVING – государственные накопления; сбережения в государственном секторе
Public saving is the amount of tax revenue that the government has left
after paying for its spending. The government receives T in tax revenue

and spends G on goods and services. If T exceeds G, the government runs
a budget surplus because it receives more money than it spends. This surplus of T – G represents public saving. If the government spends more
than it receives in tax revenue, then G is larger than T. In this case, the
government runs a budget deficit, and public saving T – G is a negative
number.

PURCHASING-POWER PARITY – паритет покупательной силы;
паритет покупательной способности
Purchasing-power parity is the theory states that a unit of any given currency should be able to buy the same quantity of goods in all countries.
Many economists believe that purchasing-power parity describes the forces that determine exchange rates in the long run.

QUANTITY DEMANDED – величина спроса; объем спроса; требуемое количество
The quantity demanded of any good is the amount of the good that buyers are willing and able to purchase. As we will see, many things determine the quantity demanded of any good, but in our analysis of how markets work, one determinant plays a central role – the price of the good.
If the price of ice cream rose to $20 per scoop, you would buy less ice
cream. You might buy frozen yogurt instead. If the price of ice cream fell
to $0.20 per scoop, you would buy more. This relationship between price
and quantity demanded is true for most goods in the economy and, in fact,
is so pervasive that economists call it the law of demand: other things
equal, when the price of a good rises, the quantity demanded of the good
falls, and when the price falls, the quantity demanded rises.

QUANTITY SUPPLIED – объём предложения
The quantity supplied of any good or service is the amount that sellers
are willing and able to sell. There are many determinants of quantity supplied, but price plays a special role. When the price of ice cream is high,
selling ice cream is profitable, and so the quantity supplied is large.
Sellers of ice cream work long hours, buy many ice-cream machines, and
hire many workers. By contrast, when the price of ice cream is low, the
business is less profitable, so sellers produce less ice cream.

QUINTILE(S) – квинтиль
Quintiles refer to division of a population into five equal groups with respect to the distribution of a variable, such as income; for example, the
lowest income quintile refers to 20 % of the population with the lowest
income.

QUOTA – контингентирование; квота; допустимый норматив; план
Quota is a type of trade protection that involves setting a legal limit to the
quantity of a good that can be imported over a particular time period (typically a year). (More generally, a ‘quota’ is a limited or fixed number of
things.)

RANDOM WALK – теория случайных блужданий (для определения
индекса движения курса акций); случайное изменение цен
The random walk is the path of a variable whose changes are impossible
to predict. One implication of the efficient markets hypothesis is that stock
prices should follow a random walk. This means that the changes in stock
prices are impossible to predict from available information. If, based on
publicly available information, a person could predict that a stock price
would rise by 10 percent tomorrow, then the stock market must be failing
to incorporate that information today. According to this theory, the only
thing that can move stock prices is news that changes the market’s perception of the company’s value. But news must be unpredictable - otherwise,
it wouldn’t really be news. For the same reason, changes in stock prices
should be unpredictable.

RATIONAL ECONOMIC DECISION MAKING – принятие рациональных экономических решений
Rational economic decision making is the assumption in economics that
all economic decision-makers act in their best self-interest, trying to maximise the satisfaction or benefit they receive from their economic decisions; for example consumers try to maximize the satisfaction of consumption, firms maximise profit, workers try to secure the highest wage
possible, etc.

RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS – разумные намерения; рациональные ожидания, основывающиеся на всей информации о текущем
и будущем развитии экономической конъюнктуры
According to the theory of rational expectations, people optimally use
all the information they have, including information about government
policies, when forecasting the future.

RATIONAL PEOPLE – здравомыслящие люди
Rational people are people who systematically and purposefully do the
best they can to achieve their objectives, given the vailable opportunities.
Economists normally assume that people are rational.

REAL EXCHANGE RATE– реальный валютный курс; реальный
обменный курс
The real exchange rate is the rate at which a person can trade the goods
and services of one country for the goods and services of another.

REAL GDP – реальный ВВП
Real GDP is Gross domestic product (GDP) measured in constant prices,
i.e. prices that prevail in one particular year, called a ‘base year’; this is
useful for making comparisons of changes in GDP over time that have
taken into account the influence of changing prices. To obtain a measure
of the amount produced that is not affected by changes in prices, we use
real GDP, which is the production of goods and services valued at constant prices. We calculate real GDP is calculated by first designating one
year as a base year. In other words, the prices in the base year provide the
basis for comparing quantities in different years.

REAL INTEREST RATE – реальная ставка процента (с учётом
обесценения денег)
Real interest rate – the interest rate corrected for the effects of inflation.
To understand how much a person earns in a savings account, we need to
consider both the interest rate and the change in the prices. The interest
rate that measures the change in dollar amounts is called the nominal interest rate, and the interest rate corrected for inflation is called the real
interest rate. The nominal interest rate, the real interest rate, and inflation
are related approximately as follows:
Real interest rate = Nominal interest rate – Inflation rate.
The real interest rate is the difference between the nominal interest rate
and the rate of inflation.

REAL VALUE – реальная стоимость актива; действительная стоимость
Real value is value that has eliminated the influence of changes in the
price level.

REALLOCATION OF RESOURCES – перераспределение ресурсов
Reallocation of resources refers to reassigning resources to particular
uses, so that the allocation of resources changes and becomes a new
allocation.

RECESSION – рецессия; замедление развития
RECESSION / DEPRESSION – кризис; спад экономического роста;
спад производства; депрессия
Recession is an economic contraction, where there is falling real GDP
(negative growth) and increasing unemployment of resources which last
six months or more. In some years the economy experiences contraction
rather than growth. Firms find themselves unable to sell all the goods and
services they have to offer, so they cut back on production. Workers are laid
off, unemployment rises, and factories are left idle. With the economy producing fewer goods and services, real GDP and other measures of income
fall. Such a period of falling incomes and rising unemployment is called
a recession if it is relatively mild and a depression if it is more severe.

RECESSIONARY GAP – рецессионный разрыв
Recessionary gap is a situation where real GDP is less than potential
GDP, and unemployment is greater than the natural rate of unemploy-

ment; it arises when the AD curve intersects the SRAS curve at a lower
level of real GDP than potential GDP. Also known as ‘deflationary gap’.

REDISTRIBUTION OF INCOME – перераспределение дохода
Redistribution of income refers to changing the distribution of income,
giving rise to a new distribution.

REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENT – региональное торговое соглашение
Regional trade agreement is a trade agreement (or agreement to lower
international trade barriers) between several countries that are located
within a geographical region (such as NAFTA, or North American Free
Trade Agreement). May be contrasted with bilateral trade agreement and
multilateral trade agreement.

REGRESSIVE TAX – регрессивный налог, налогообложение по
убывающей шкале

A regressive tax is a tax for which high-income taxpayers pay a smaller
fraction of their income than do low-income taxpayers, even though they
pay a larger amount.

REGRESSIVE TAXATION – регрессивная система налогообложения
Regressive taxation is taxation where, as income increases, the fraction
of income paid as taxes decreases; there is a decreasing tax rate.

RELATIVE POVERTY – относительная бедность
Relative poverty is the inability of an individual or a family to afford an
adequate standard of goods and services, where the adequate standard is
relative and changes over time; this standard is defined as what is ‘typical’
in a society, taken to be a particular percentage (often 50%) of society’s
median income. As incomes increase and the median income rises, the
standard also rises.

RENT – аренда (плата); доход с недвижимости и капитала
Rent is a payment, per unit of time, to owners of land resources who supply their land to the production process.

RESERVE ASSETS – резервные активы; резервное имущество
Reserve assets refer to foreign currency reserves that the central bank
maintains and can buy or sell to influence the value of the country’s currency exchange rate; in the balance of payments appears as an item in the
financial account. Also known as ‘official reserves’.

RESOURCE ALLOCATION – распределение ресурсов
Resource allocation is assigning available resources, or factors or production, to specific uses chosen among many possible and competing alternatives; involves answering the ‘what to produce’ and ‘how to produce’
basic economic questions.

RESOURCES – ресурсы; средства (материальные ценности)
Resources are actors of production, used by firms as inputs in the production process.

RETURNS TO SCALE – доходы, зависящие от масштаба операций;
отдача от масштаба
Returns to scale refer to the relationship between inputs and output, and
in particular by how much output changes if all inputs change (increase or
decrease) by the same proportion.

REVALUATION (OF A CURRENCY) – ревальвация (валюты)
Revaluation (of a currency) refers to an increase in the value of a currency in the context of a fixed exchange rate system (compare with appreciation, which is an increase in currency value in the contest of a floating
or managed exchange rate system).

REVENUE MAXIMIZATION – максимизация доходов
Revenue maximisation is the objective of some firms to maximise revenue
(rather than profit, as assumed by the standard theory of the firm). The revenue maximizing firm produces the level of output where its marginal
revenue is equal to zero (as that is where total revenue is maximum).

RISK AVERSION – неприятие риска; уклонение от риска
Risk aversion is a dislike of uncertainty. In economics and finance, risk
aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors),

who, when exposed to uncertainty, attempt to lower that uncertainty. It is
the hesitation of a person to agree to a situation with an unknown payoff
rather than another situation with a more predictable payoff but possibly
lower expected payoff. For example, a risk-averse investor might choose
to put their money into a bank account with a low but guaranteed interest
rate, rather than into a stock that may have high expected returns, but also
involves a chance of losing value.

RIVALROUS – соперничающий
Rivalrous is a characteristic of a good according to which its consumption by one person reduces its availability for someone else; most goods
are rivalrous. It is one of the two characteristics of ‘private goods’.

RIVALRY IN CONSUMPTION – соперничество в потреблении
Rivalry in consumption is the property of a good whereby one person’s
use diminishes other people’s use. Rivalry in consumption refers to the
degree to which one person consuming a particular unit of a good or service precludes others from consuming that same unit of a good or service.
For example, an orange has high rivalry in consumption because if one
person is consuming an orange, another person cannot completely consume that same orange. Of course, they can share the orange, but both
people can't consume the entire orange.

SACRIFICE RATIO – коэффициент издержек (антиинфляционной
политики)
A sacrifice ratio is a type of assessment that is utilized to identify the
changes that are necessary to the economic output of a nation in order to
move the rate of inflation to a more acceptable level. Depending on what
is happening with the economy, this may involve taking action to discourage certain types of growth within the economy as a means of slowing
the rate of inflation. Many studies have examined the data on inflation
and unemployment to estimate the cost of reducing inflation. The findings
of these studies are often summarized in a statistic called the sacrifice ratio. The sacrifice ratio is the number of percentage points of annual output
lost in the process of reducing inflation by 1 percentage point. A typical
estimate of the sacrifice ratio is 5. That is, for each percentage point
that inflation is reduced, 5 percent of annual output must be sacrificed
in the transition.

SATISFICING – поиск и принятие удовлетворительного варианта
Satisficing is a goal of firms to achieve satisfactory results, rather than
pursue a single maximising objective, such as to maximise profits or reve-

nues; based on the argument that large, modern firms have numerous
objectives which may partly overlap or conflict, thus forcing them
to compromise and reconcile conflicts, rather than pursue optimal results.

SCARCITY – недостаток; ограниченность; дефицит: фундаментальная концепция экономики о том, что товаров по природе своей
меньше, чем людям хотелось бы
Scarcity is the condition in which available resources (land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship) are limited; they are not enough to produce everything that human beings need and want; it is the limited nature of society’s
resources. Scarcity means that society has limited resources and therefore
cannot produce all the goods and services people wish to have. Just as
each member of a household cannot get everything he or she wants, each
individual in a society cannot attain the highest standard of living to which
he or she might aspire.

SCREENING – скрининг; действие, предпринятое неосведомленной
стороной, чтобы побудить информированную сторону раскрыть
информацию
Screening is an action taken by an uninformed party to induce an informed party to reveal information. When an uninformed party takes actions to induce the informed party to reveal private information, the phenomenon is called screening. Some screening is common sense. A person
buying a used car may ask that it be checked by an auto mechanic before

the sale. A seller who refuses this request reveals his private information
that the car is a lemon. The buyer may decide to offer a lower price or
to look for another car.

SEASONAL UNEMPLOYMENT – сезонная безработица
Seasonal unemployment is a type of unemployment that occurs when
the demand for labour in certain industries changes on a seasonal basis
because of variations in needs; for example, farm workers are hired during
peak harvesting seasons and let off for the rest of the year.

SHORT RUN – короткий промежуток времени
Short run: (I) In microeconomics, it is a time period during which at least
one input is fixed and cannot be changed by the firm. (II) In macroeco-

nomics, it is the period of time during which the prices of resources, particularly the price of labour (wages) do not change (they are constant).

SHORTAGE – нехватка; недостаток; дефицит
Shortage is a situation in which quantity demanded is greater than quantity supplied.
In the context of demand and supply, is the amount by which quantity
demanded is greater than quantity supplied: demanders are unable to buy
all they want at the going price. A shortage is sometimes called a situation
of excess demand. When a shortage occurs in the ice-cream market, buyers
have to wait in long lines for a chance to buy one of the few cones available. With too many buyers chasing too few goods, sellers can respond to the
shortage by raising their prices without losing sales. These price increases
cause the quantity demanded to fall and the quantity supplied to rise. Once
again, these changes represent movements along the supply and demand
curves, and they move the market toward the equilibrium.

SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY (SRAS) CURVE – кривая
краткосрочного совокупного предложения (SRAS)
Short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) сurve is a curve showing the relationship between the price level and the quantity of real GDP produced by
firms when resource prices do not change.

SHORT-RUN EQUILIBRIUM LEVEL OF OUTPUT – краткосрочный равновесный уровень производства
Short-run equilibrium level of output: in the monetarist/new classical
model, it is the level of output (real GDP) determined by the intersection
of the aggregate demand and short run aggregate supply curves; in the
Keynesian model, it is the level of output determined by the intersection
of the aggregate demand and Keynesian aggregate supply curves. In both
models, equilibrium may occur where there is (I) a recessionary (deflationary) gap, (II) an inflationary gap, or (III) full employment output.

SHUT-DOWN PRICE – ликвидационная цена
Shut-down price is the price at which a firm that is making losses and
will stop producing in the short run. In perfect competition, it is given by
price = minimum average variable cost. (If price is greater than average
variable cost, the firm will go on producing in the short run even if it is
making a loss.)




SIGNALING – сигнализация; передача частной информации неосведомленной стороне
Signaling is an action taken by an informed party to reveal private information to an uninformed party. Although asymmetric information is
sometimes a motivation for public policy, it also motivates some individual behavior that otherwise might be hard to explain. Markets respond to
problems of asymmetric information in many ways. One of them is signaling, which refers to actions taken by an informed party for the sole purpose of credibly revealing his private information.

SLOPE – наклон; скат
Slope: in the case of a straight line, it refers to the change in the dependent
variable divided by the change in the independent variable between any
two points on the line. According to mathematical convention, where the
dependent variable is plotted on the vertical axis, the slope is the ‘rise over
run’ (i.e. the vertical change divided by the horizontal change), however
in microeconomics where quantity, the dependent variable, is plotted on
the horizontal axis, the slope is the ‘run over rise’ (the horizontal change
divided by the vertical change).

SOCIAL INSURANCE – социальное страхование, социальное обеспечение
Social insurance is the government policy aimed at protecting people
against the risk of adverse events. Homeowners buy fire insurance to protect themselves from the risk of their house burning down. Similarly,
when we as a society choose policies that tax the rich to supplement the
incomes of the poor, we are all insuring ourselves against the possibility
that we might have been a member of a poor family. Because people
dislike risk, we should be happy to have been born into a society that
provides us this insurance.

SOCIAL OPTIMUM – социальный оптимум
Social optimum refers to a situation that is the best from the social point
of view, determined by the achievement of allocative efficiency (or economic efficiency); occurs when marginal social benefits are equal to marginal social costs (MSB = MSC).

SOCIAL SAFETY NET – социальная защита человека; система социальной защиты населения
Social safety net is a system of government transfers of cash or goods to
vulnerable groups, undertaken to ensure that these groups do not fall below a socially acceptable minimum standard of living; see also transfer
payments.

SOCIAL SCIENCES – общественные науки
Social sciences are academic disciplines that study human society and
social relationships, concerned with discovering general principles describing how societies function and are organised; include anthropology,
economics, political science, psychology, sociology and others.

SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC METHOD – социально-научный метод
Social scientific method is the same as the scientific method, it is a method of investigation used in sciences and social sciences allowing the accumulation of scientific and social scientific knowledge; involves making
a hypothesis based on observations, testing the hypothesis, and rejecting
or accepting the hypothesis based on empirical (real-world) evidence.

SOCIAL SURPLUS – социальный профицит
Social surplus is the sum of consumer and producer surplus; it is maximum in a competitive market with no market failures.

SPARE CAPACITY – резервные возможности; резервные мощности
Spare capacity refers to physical capital that firms have available but do
not use; arises in a recession when there is unemployment of resources.

SPECIALIZATION – специализация
Specialisation occurs when a firm or a country concentrates production
on one or a few goods and services. In international trade theory, specialization forms the basis for the gains from trade, arising when countries
specialise according to their comparative advantage, and when firms specialise in production of goods and services that offer them economies of
scale. Specialisation of labour occurs when workers perform one or a few
tasks, and is one factor leading to economies of scale.

SPECIFIC TAX – специфический налог; потоварный налог
Specific tax is a tax calculated as an absolute amount per unit of the good
or service sold.

SPECULATION (CURRENCY) – спекуляции (валютные)
Speculation (currency) refers to buying and selling of something in the
hope of making a profit. ‘Currency speculation’ involves buying and selling currencies based on expectations of changes in the value of a currency
(exchange rates) in order to make a profit in the future.

STAGFLATION – стагфляция; экономический застой; стагнация при
одновременной инфляции
Stagflation is a period of falling output and rising prices. Arising from a
combination of the works ‘stagnation’ and ‘inflation’, it refers to the simultaneous appearance of inflation and recession (and therefore also unemployment). Because the economy is experiencing both stagnation (falling
output) and inflation (rising prices), such an event is called stagflation.

STOCK – акционерный капитал; денежный фонд; облигации; ценные бумаги
Stock is a claim to partial ownership in a firm.
Stock represents ownership in a firm and is, therefore, a claim to the profits that the firm makes.

STOCK EXCHANGE – фондовая биржа (осуществляет операции по
купле-продаже ценных бумаг, золота, валюты)
Stock exchange – is a facility where stock brokers and traders can buy
and sell securities, such as shares of stock and bonds and other financial
instruments.

STRATEGIC INTERDEPENDENCE – стратегическая взаимозависимость
Strategic interdependence is characteristic of oligopolies, refers to the
mutual interdependence of firms and their strategic behaviour (planning
their actions based on guesses about what their rivals will do), in view
of the expectation that what happens to the profits of one firm depends
on the strategies adopted by the other firms.

STRIKE – забастовка; акция протеста
Strike is the organized withdrawal of labor from a firm by a union employers over wages and working conditions. Unions often raise wages
above the level that would prevail without a union, perhaps because they
can threaten to withhold labor from the firm by calling a strike. When
a union bargains with a firm, it asks for higher wages, better benefits, and
better working conditions than the firm would offer in the absence of
a union. If the union and the firm do not reach agreement, the union can
organize a withdrawal of labor from the firm, called a strike.

STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT – структурная безработица;
безработица, вызванная структурными изменениями в экономике
Structural unemployment is a type of unemployment that occurs as
a result of technological changes and changing patterns of demand (causing
changes in demand for labour skills), as well as changes in the geographical location of jobs, and labour market rigidities. Structural unemployment results because the number of jobs available in some labor markets
is insufficient to provide a job for everyone who wants one. This occurs

when the quantity of labor supplied exceeds the quantity demanded.
Unemployment of this sort is sometimes called structural unemployment,
and it is often thought to explain longer spells of unemployment. This
kind of unemployment results when wages are, for some reason, set above
the level that brings supply and demand into equilibrium.

SUBSIDY – ссуда; субсидирование; государственная помощь
Subsidy is an amount of money paid by the government to firms for a variety of reasons: to prevent an industry from failing, to support producers’
incomes, or as a form of protection against imports (due to the lower costs
and lower prices that arise from the subsidy). A subsidy given to a firm results in a higher level of output and lower price for consumers. May also be
paid to consumers as financial assistance or for income redistribution.

SUBSTITUTE GOODS – товары-заменители
Substitute goods are two or more goods that satisfy a similar need, so that
one good can be used in place of another. If two goods are substitutes, an
increase in the price of one leads to an increase in the demand for the other.

SUBSTITUTES – взаимозаменяемые товары
Substitutes are two goods for which an increase in the price of one leads
to an increase in the demand for the other. Substitutes are often pairs of
goods that are used in place of each other, such as hot dogs and hamburgers, sweaters and sweatshirts, etc.

SUBSTITUTION EFFECT – эффект замещения (изменение величины спроса на товар как результат изменения его цены по отношению
к ценам других товаров)
A substitution effect is the change in consumption that results when
a price change moves the consumer along a given indifference curve to
a point with a new marginal rate of substitution.

SUNK COST – издержки истёкшего периода; невозвратные издержки; сделанные капиталовложения
Sunk cost is a cost that has already been committed and cannot be recovered. Sometime in your life you may have been told, “Don’t cry over spilt
milk,” or “Let bygones be bygones.” These adages hold a deep truth about
rational decision making. Economists say that a cost is a sunk cost when it
has already been committed and cannot be recovered. Because nothing
can be done about sunk costs, you can ignore them when making decisions about various aspects of life, including business strategy.

SUPERNORMAL PROFIT – сверхприбыль
Supernormal profit refers to positive economic profit, arising when total
revenue is greater than total economic costs (implicit plus explicit costs);
is also known as ‘abnormal profit’.

SUPPLY – объем предложения; поставка
Supply шndicates the various quantities of a good that firms (or a firm)
are willing and able to produce and sell at different possible prices during
a particular time period, ceteris paribus (all other things being equal).

SUPPLY CURVE – кривая предложений, кривая предложения
Supply curve is a graph of the relationship between the price of a good and
the quantity supplied. It is a curve showing the relationship between the
quantities of a good that firms (or a firm) are willing and able to produce
and sell during a particular time period and their respective prices, ceteris
paribus (all other things being equal). The curve relating price and quantity
supplied is called the supply curve. The supply curve slopes upward because, other things equal, a higher price means a greater quantity supplied.

SUPPLY OF MONEY – предложение денег; денежные резервы;
денежная масса
Supply of money is the amount of money in circulation, determined by
the central bank of a country; in combination with the demand for money,
the supply of money determines the equilibrium rate of interest. (In practice central banks have difficulties in accurately controlling the supply
of money.)

SUPPLY SCHEDULE – кривая предложений (в сопоставляемых ценах), таблица/график предложения
A supply schedule is a table that shows the relationship between the price
of a good and the quantity supplied, holding constant everything else that
influences how much producers of the good want to sell.

SUPPLY SHOCK – нарушение в снабжении; кризис предложения;
шок в сфере предложения
A supply shock refers to events that have a sudden and strong impact on
short-run aggregate supply (SRAS), leading to SRAS curve shifts; for example, a war or violent conflict that destroys physical capital and disrupts
the economy, favourable or unfavourable weather conditions, etc. It is an
event that directly affects firms’ costs of production and thus the prices
they charge; it shifts the economy’s aggregate-supply curve and, as a result, the Phillips curve. For example, when an oil price increase raises the

cost of producing petrol, heating oil, tires, and many other products,
it reduces the quantity of goods and services supplied at any given price
level.

SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES – политика стимулирования предложения
Supply-side policies refer to the variety of policies that focus on aggregate supply, namely factors aiming to shift the long-run aggregate supply
(LRAS) curve to the right, in order to achieve long-term economic growth.
They do not attempt to stabilize the economy (i.e. to reduce the severity of
the business cycle). There are two major categories of supply-side policies: market-based and interventionist. To be contrasted with demand-side
policies.

SURPLUS – излишек/излишки, избыток; избыточный доход; прибыль; активное сальдо (бюджета, платежного баланса)
Surplus: in general, this is the excess of something over something else to
which it is being compared. (I) In the context of demand and supply, it is
the extra supply that results when quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded. (II) In the case of consumer and producer surplus, it is the
extra benefit consumers get by paying less for a good than the amount
they are willing to pay, or the extra benefit producers get by receiving
a higher price for the good they are selling than the price they are willing
to receive. (III) In the case of the government budget, a surplus occurs
when government revenues are greater than government expenditures.
(IV) In the balance of payments, a surplus in an account occurs when the

credits (inflows of money from abroad) are larger than the debits (outflows of money to other countries). Thus, surplus is a situation in which
quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded. If there is a surplus
of the good, suppliers are unable to sell all they want at the going price.
A surplus is sometimes called a situation of excess supply.

SUSTAINABILITY – устойчивое развитие; рациональное использование ресурсов
Sustainability refers to maintaining the ability of the environment and the
economy to continue to produce and satisfy needs and wants into the future; depends crucially on the preservation of the environment over time.
Related to the concept of sustainable development, meaning ‘Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’, which is the idea that
the use of natural resources in the present should not leave behind fewer
or lower quality resources for use by future generations.

TACIT COLLUSION – формально не зафиксированный сговор
Tacit collusion refers to cooperation that is implicit or understood between cooperating oligopolistic firms, without a formal agreement, with
the objectives to coordinate prices, avoid competitive price-cutting, limit
competition, reduce uncertainties and increase profits; may take the form
of price leadership.

TARIFFS – тарифы; таможенные пошлины
Tariffs are taxes on imported goods; they are the most common form of
trade restriction. Tariffs may serve two purposes: to protect a domestic
industry from foreign competition (a protective tariff); or to raise revenue
for the government (a revenue tariff). Whatever the purpose, the impacts
on the economy are the same.

TAX INCIDENCE – распределение налогов по группам обложения
по группам населения; фактическое распределение налогового бремени
Tax incidence is the manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among
participants in a market.
The term tax incidence refers to how the burden of a tax is distributed
among the various people who make up the economy.

TECHNOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE – специальные знания; знания
в области технологии
Technological knowledge is the society’s understanding of the best ways
to produce goods and services.

TERMS OF TRADE – условия торговли
Terms of trade relate the prices a country receives for its exports to the
prices paid for its imports, and is given by the ratio of index of average
export prices to index of average import prices times 100. An increase in
the value of this ratio indicates a terms of trade improvement, meaning
that a country can now buy more imports for the same amount of exports;
a decrease in the value of this ratio indicates a terms of trade deterioration,
meaning that a country can now buy fewer imports for the same amount
of exports.

THEORY OF ABSOLUTE ADVANTAGE – теория абсолютного
преимущества
Theory of absolute advantage: according to this theory, if countries
specialise in and export the goods in which they have an absolute advantage (can produce with fewer resources), there results an improvement
in resource allocation and increased production and consumption in each
country.

THEORY OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE – теория сравнительного преимущества
Theory of comparative advantage: according to this theory (also known
as a law), as long as opportunity costs in two (or more) countries differ,
it is possible for all countries to gain from specialisation and trade according
to their comparative advantage; this results in an improvement in the
global allocation of resources, resulting in greater global output and consumption. Is a more powerful explanation of the gains from trade than the
theory of absolute advantage.

THEORY OF LIQUIDITY PREFERENCE – теория предпочтения
ликвидности; теория, связывающая стремление людей хранить день-

ги с различными мотивами, в частности, со спросом на деньги для
сделок, спросом на деньги для непредвиденных целей и спросом на
деньги для спекулятивных целей.
The theory of liquidity preference is Keynes’s theory that the interest
rate adjusts to bring money supply and money demand into balance. This
theory of interest-rate determination will help explain the downward slope
of the aggregate-demand curve, as well as how monetary and fiscal policy
can shift this curve. By shedding new light on aggregate demand, the theory of liquidity preference expands our understanding of what causes
short-run economic fluctuations and what policymakers can potentially do
about them.

THIRD DEGREE PRICE DISCRIMINATION – ценовая дискриминация третьей степени
Third degree price discrimination occurs when a firm price discriminates (i.e. changes different prices that are not justified by difference in
costs) among different consumer groups; is based on the principle that
different consumer groups have different price elasticities of demand
(PED) for a product, so that higher prices are charged to consumers with
a lower PED and lower prices to consumers with a higher PED.

TIED AID – помощь, ограниченная условиями
Tied aid is the practice whereby donors make the recipients of foreign aid
spend a portion of the borrowed funds on the purchase of goods and services from the donor country. It occurs only in the context of bilateral (not
multilateral) aid.

TOTAL COSTS – валовые издержки; общая сумма расходов; совокупные расходы; переменные и фиксированные издержки
Total costs (the sum of fixed and variable costs) refer to the market value
of the inputs a firm uses in production. OR; the amount that the firm pays
to buy inputs (e.g., flour, sugar, workers, ovens, and so forth) is called its
total cost.

TOTAL PRODUCT – совокупный продукт
Total product is the total quantity of output produced by a firm.

TOTAL REVENUE – общая выручка; полная выручка; валовые поступления; совокупный доход (от основной деятельности и увеличения стоимости капитала)
Total revenue is the amount of money received by firms when they sell a
good (or service); it is equal to the price (P) of the good times the quantity
(Q) of the good sold. Therefore total revenue = P × Q. OR: total revenue
is the amount paid by buyers and received by sellers of a good, computed
as the price of the good times the quantity sold.

TRADABLE PERMITS – природоохранные квоты с правом переуступки
Tradable permits are permits that can be issued to firms by a government
or an international body, and that can be traded (bought and sold) in
a market, the objective being to limit the total amount of pollutants emitted
by the firms. If a firm can produce its product by emitting a lower level
of pollutants than the level set by its permits, it can sell its extra permits in
the market. If a firm needs to emit more pollutants than the level set by its
permits, it can buy more permits in the market. Tradable permits are part
of cap-and-trade schemes.

TRADE BALANCE – внешнеторговый баланс; торговый баланс
Trade balance is the value of a nation’s exports minus the value of its
imports; also called net exports.

TRADE CREATION – налаживание торговых связей
Trade creation is the replacement of higher cost products (imported or
domestically produced) by lower cost imports that results when a trading
bloc is formed and trade barriers are removed. (To be contrasted with
trade diversion.)

TRADE DEFICIT – превышение импорта над экспортом; внешнеторговый дефицит; отрицательное сальдо торгового баланса
Trade deficit is an excess of imports over exports. If net exports are negative, exports are less than imports, indicating that the country sells fewer
goods and services abroad than it buys from other countries. In this case,
the country is said to run a trade deficit.

TRADE DIVERSION – переориентация торговли
Trade diversion is the replacement of lower cost products (imported or
domestically produced) by higher cost imports that results when a trading
bloc is formed and trade barriers are removed. (To be contrasted with
trade creation.)

TRADE LIBERALISATION – либерализация торговли
Trade liberalisation is the policy of liberalising (freeing up) international trade
by eliminating trade protection and barriers to trade (i.e. tariffs, quotas, etc.)

TRADE POLICY – торговая политика; товарная политика
A trade policy is a government policy that directly influences the quantity
of goods and services that a country imports or exports. Trade policy takes
various forms, usually with the purpose of supporting a particular domestic industry. One common trade policy is a tariff, a tax on imported goods.
Another is an import quota, a limit on the quantity of a good produced
abroad that can be sold domestically. Trade policies are common throughout the world, although sometimes they are disguised.

TRADE PROTECTION – торговый протекционизм
Trade protection is government intervention in international trade
through the imposition of trade restrictions (or barriers) to prevent the free
entry of imports into a country and protect the domestic economy from
foreign competition.

TRADE SURPLUS – торговый профицит; положительное сальдо
торгового баланса
Trade surplus is an excess of exports over imports. If net exports are positive, exports are greater than imports, indicating that the country sells
more goods and services abroad than it buys from other countries. In this
case, the country is said to run a trade surplus.

TRADING BLOC – торговый блок, торгово-экономический союз
Trading bloc refers to a group of countries that have agreed to reduce
tariff and other barriers to trade for the purpose of encouraging the development of free or freer trade and cooperation between them.

TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS – трагедия ресурсов общего пользования; «трагедия общин» (термин, популяризированный Г. Хардином в 1968 году в статье для журнала Science)
Tragedy of the Commons is a parable that illustrates why common resources are used more than is desirable from the standpoint of society as
a whole.
Common resources, like public goods, are not excludable: They are available free of charge to anyone who wants to use them. Common resources
are, however, rival in consumption: One person’s use of the common resource reduces other people’s ability to use it. Thus, common resources
give rise to a new problem. Once the good is provided, policymakers need
to be concerned about how much it is used. This problem is best understood from the classic parable called the Tragedy of the Commons.

TRANSACTION COSTS – затраты по сделкам, трансакционные
издержки
Transaction costs are the costs that parties incur in the process of agreeing to and following through on a bargain.

Sometimes the interested parties fail to solve an externality problem because of transaction costs, the costs that parties incur in the process of
agreeing to and following through on a bargain. For example Dick and
Jane speak different languages so that, to reach an agreement, they need to
hire a translator. If the benefit of solving the barking problem is less than
the cost of the translator, Dick and Jane might choose to leave the problem
unsolved. In more realistic examples, the transaction costs are the expenses not of translators but of the lawyers required to draft and enforce
contracts.

TRANSFER PAYMENTS – трансфертные платежи
Transfer payments are payments made by the government to individuals
specifically for the purpose of redistributing income, thus transferring income from those who work and pay taxes towards those who cannot work
and need assistance. Groups receiving transfer payments may include
older people, sick people, very poor people, children of poor families,
unemployed people and others; in their entirety they are referred to as
‘vulnerable groups’.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE – страхование по безработице
Unemployment insurance is a government program that partially protects workers’ incomes when they become unemployed. The unemployed
who quit their jobs, were fired for cause, or just entered the labor force are
not eligible. Benefits are paid only to the unemployed who were laid off
because their previous employers no longer needed their skills.

UNEMPLOYMENT RATE – уровень безработицы; процент безработных
Unemployment rate is the percentage of the labor force that is unemployed.

UNION – профсоюз
Union is a worker association that bargains with employers over wages
and working conditions.

A union is a worker association that bargains with employers over wages
and working conditions. Unions often raise wages above the level that
would prevail without a union, perhaps because they can threaten to withhold labor from the firm by calling a strike. Studies suggest that union
workers earn about 10 to 20 percent more than similar nonunion workers.

UTILITARIANISM – утилитаризм; прагматизм
Utilitarianism is the political philosophy according to which the government should choose policies to maximize the total utility of everyone in
society.
A prominent school of thought in political philosophy is utilitarianism.
The founders of utilitarianism are the English philosophers Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806–1873). To a large extent,
the goal of utilitarians is to apply the logic of individual decision making
to questions concerning morality and public policy.

UTILITY – практическая ценность; полезность; польза
Utility is a measure of happiness or satisfaction.
The starting point of utilitarianism is the notion of utility – the level of
happiness or satisfaction that a person receives from his or her circumstances. Utility is a measure of well-being and, according to utilitarians,
is the ultimate objective of all public and private actions. The proper goal
of the government, they claim, is to maximize the sum of utility achieved
by everyone in society.

VALUE – стоимость; финансовые результаты
Value is a measure of the benefit that may be gained from goods or
service.

VALUE OF THE MARGINAL PRODUCT – стоимость добавочного
продукта
Value of the marginal product is the marginal product of an input times
the price of the output.
The value of the marginal product of any input is the marginal product of
that input multiplied by the market price of the output.

VARIABLE COSTS – переменные расходы; переменные затраты;
переменные издержки
Variable costs are costs that vary with the quantity of output produced.
Some of the firm’s costs, called variable costs, change as the firm alters
the quantity of output produced. For example, Conrad’s variable costs
include the cost of coffee beans, milk, sugar, and paper cups: The more
cups of coffee Conrad makes, the more of these items he needs to buy.
Similarly, if Conrad has to hire more workers to make more cups of

coffee, the salaries of these workers are variable costs. The variable cost
is 0 if he produces nothing, $0.30 if he produces 1 cup of coffee, $0.80 if
he produces 2 cups, and so on.

VERTICAL EQUITY – вертикальная экономическая справедливость: концепция экономической справедливости: те, кто в лучшем
экономическом положении, обязаны платить бóльшую сумму налогов, чем те, которые в худшем экономическом положении
Vertical equity is the idea that taxpayers with a greater ability to pay taxes should pay larger amounts. (see also horizontal equity). Two corollary
notions of equity (horizontal and vertical) are widely accepted, but applying them to evaluate a tax system is rarely straightforward.

WELFARE– социальная защита населения; социальная политика
Welfare is government programs that supplement the incomes of the
needy.
One way for the government to raise the living standards of the poor is to
supplementtheir incomes. The primary way the government does this is
through thewelfare system. Welfare is a broad term that encompasses various government programs.

WELFARE ECONOMICS – экономическая теория благосостояния;
экономика благосостояния
Welfare economics is the study of how the allocation of resources affects
economic well-being.

WILLINGNESS TO PAY – готовность платить; согласие на оплату
Willingness to pay is the maximum amount that a buyer will pay for
a good.
Each buyer’s maximum is called his willingness to pay, and it measures
how much that buyer values the good. Each buyer would be eager to buy
the album at a price less than his willingness to pay, and he would refuse
to buy the album at a price greater than his willingness to pay. At a price
equal to his willingness to pay, the buyer would be indifferent about buying the good: If the price is exactly the same as the value he places on the
album, he would be equally happy buying it or keeping his money.

WORLD PRICE – мировая цена; цены на мировом рынке
World price is the price of a good that prevails in the world market for
that good.

АО «Коммерсантъ»; газета «Коммерсантъ» : [Электронный ресурс].
Россия, Москва, 1991–2018. – URL: https://www.kommersant.ru
Группа «Эксперт»; Эксперт online: [Электронный ресурс]. Россия,
Москва, 1995–2018. – URL: http://expert.ru
Forbes Media LLC: [Электронный ресурс]. США, Вашингтон. – URL:
https://www.forbes.com
Forbes Russia: [Электронный ресурс]. США, Вашингтон. – URL:
http://www.forbes.ru
Forbes – Twitter: [Электронный ресурс]. США, Нью-Йорк, 2009–2018. –
URL: https://twitter.com/forbes
The BBC: [Электронный ресурс]. Великобритания, Лондон. – URL:
http://www.bbc.com
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD): [Электронный ресурс]. Великобритания, Лондон. – URL: https://www.ebrd.com/
The Financial Times: [Электронный ресурс]. Великобритания, Лондон. – URL: https://www.ft.com
The Financial Times – Twitter: [Электронный ресурс]. Великобритания, Лондон, 2009–2018. URL: https://twitter.com/ft
The iWEB corpus: [Электронный ресурс]. США, Brigham Young University. – URL: https://corpus.byu.edu/iweb/
The World Bank Group: [Электронный ресурс]. США, Вашингтон. –
URL: http://www.worldbank.org

Учебное издание

Учебное пособие

Редактор Т.М. Пыжик
Компьютерная верстка Д.Р. Мазай

Иллюстрация на обложке предоставлена художником Полом Бондом (США)
The authors acknowledge Paul Bond (USA) for kind permission
to reproduce his work of art
“The Soft Morning of Our Remembrance”

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